Breakfast consumption among Malaysian primary and secondary school children and relationship with body weight status - Findings from the MyBreakfast Study
E Siong Tee；Abdul Razak Nurliyana；A Karim Norimah；Hamid Jan B Jan Mohamed；Sue Yee Tan；Mahenderan Appukutty；Sinead Hopkins；Frank Thielecke；Moi Kim Ong；Celia Ning；Mohd Taib Mohd Nasir
breakfast consumption ； physical activity ； body weight status ； children ； Malaysia
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
|Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication||
27卷2期（2018 / 02 / 01）
421 - 432
Background and Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between breakfast consumption and body weight status among primary and secondary school children in Malaysia. Methods and Study Design: This nationwide cross-sectional study involved 5,332 primary school children aged 6 to 12 years and 3,000 secondary school children aged 13 to 17 years. Height and weight were measured and BMI-for-age was determined. Socio-demographic backgrounds, breakfast habits and physical activity levels were assessed using questionnaires. Breakfast frequency was defined as follows: breakfast skippers (ate breakfast 0-2 days/week), irregular breakfast eaters (ate breakfast 3-4 days/week) and regular breakfast eaters (ate breakfast ≥5 days/week). Results: The overall prevalence of breakfast skippers and irregular breakfast eaters was 11.7% and 12.7% respectively. Breakfast skipping was related to age, sex, ethnicity, income and physical activity level. Among primary school boys and secondary school girls, the proportion of overweight/obesity was higher among breakfast skippers (boys: 43.9%, girls: 30.5%) than regular breakfast eaters (boys: 31.2%, girls: 22.7%). Among primary school children, only boys who skipped breakfast had a higher mean BMI-for-age z-score than regular breakfast eaters. Among secondary school boys and girls, BMI-for-age z-score was higher among breakfast skippers than regular breakfast eaters. Compared to regular breakfast eaters, primary school boys who skipped breakfast were 1.71 times (95% CI=1.26-2.32, p=0.001) more likely to be overweight/obese, while the risk was lower in primary school girls (OR=1.36, 95% CI=1.02-1.81, p=0.039) and secondary school girls (OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.01-1.90, p=0.044). Conclusion: Regular breakfast consumption was associated with a healthier body weight status and is a dietary behaviour which should be encouraged.