Title

宗教慈善與災害重建:以九二一賑災爲例

Translated Titles

Religious Philanthropy and Disaster Relief in Taiwan: Lessons from the Post-921 Earthquake Reconstruction

DOI

10.30157/JCRTF.200903.0006

Authors

安德瑞(André Laliberté)

Key Words

宗教慈善社團 ; 佛教慈善機構 ; 救災援助 ; 福利制度 ; 佛教慈濟功德會 ; religious charity ; Buddhist philanthropy ; disaster relief ; welfare regime ; Tzu Chi

PublicationName

民俗曲藝

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

163期(2009 / 03 / 01)

Page #

193 - 220

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

決策者、傳媒和外界社會通常會以佛教慈濟功德會(以下簡稱:慈濟)在臺灣對救濟院的管理以及對教育的貢獻爲例,來關注宗教團體在提供社會服務過程中對社會做出的有利貢獻。有些決策者認為,政府在提供醫療保健和社會福利事業上的投入太大,而一些像慈濟這樣的組織卻證明了在醫療保健和災難救助等關鍵的社會服務方面,民間社會組織可以比政府做得更好。本文認爲,儘管慈濟在醫療保健,教育和救災等方面取得了顯著的成就。但以此聲稱宗教團體可以替代政府作爲一個有效的機構,未免有些太過於樂觀了。爲了探討這個問題,本文首先將介紹臺灣「九二一」大地震後主要參與到震後重建工作的組織與機構。其次,本文展示強調依靠民間社會和宗教組織爲社會服務的專家論點。第三,文章還將強調來自特有不同宗教觀的政治家、參與社會政策和宗教事務管理的公務員,以及媒體、學者和一些臺灣當代的宗教人士對這種模式的反對。然後,本文將提供慈濟和其他佛教組織對緊急救災的提供和維持重建住宅房屋和學校的詳細資料。最後,文章將討論政府行政措施在對宗教團體災難救助方面依賴的局限。

English Abstract

Policy-makers, media, and outsiders often look at the achievements of the Buddhist Compassion Merit Society for Relief (Fojiao Ciji Gongdehui佛教慈濟功德會, hereafter Ciji) in the management of its hospitals and its contribution to education in Taiwan as an example of the benefits to society made possible by the involvement of religious institutions in the delivery of social services. Some of the policy-makers who believe that the state is spending too much for the provision of health care and social welfare services see in the activities of organizations such as Ciji proof that civil society organizations can do better than the state for the provision of key social services such as health care and disaster relief. This paper argues that despite the remarkable achievements of Ciji in health care, education and disaster relief, these claims that religious institutions can represent an effective alternative to the state may be too optimistic. It discusses this issue by first presenting the major organizations involved in the reconstruction effort following the 921 earthquake. Then, it will present the arguments of the experts who emphasize reliance on civil society and religious organizations for social services. In a third section, it will underline the opposition this model receives from politicians with different views on religion, civil servants involved with social policy and religious affairs, media, academics, and some of the religious actors themselves details about Ciji and other Buddhist organizations' efforts to provide emergency disaster relief and sustain the reconstruction of residential housing and schools. The paper concludes with a discussion of the limits of the government's strategy of reliance on religious institutions for the provision of disaster relief.

Topic Category 人文學 > 藝術
Reference
  1. Katz, Paul R.(2006).It is Difficult to be Indifferent to One's Roots'-Taizhou 台州 Sojourners and Flood Relief during the 1920s.Bulletin of the Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica,54,1-58.
    連結:
  2. 高萬桑(2006)。現代中國的國家與宗教:宗教政策與學術典型。中央研究院近代史研究所集刊,54,169-209。
    連結:
  3. Aspalter, Christian(2002).Democratization and Welfare State Development in Taiwan.Aldershot:Ashgate.
  4. Bosco, Joseph,Murray Rubinstein (Edited)(1994).The Other Taiwan: 1945 to the Presenet.Armonk, NY:M.E. Sharpe.
  5. Chandler, Stuart(2004).Establishing a Pure Land on Earth: The Foguang Buddhist Perspective on Modernization and Globalization.Honolulu:University of Hawai'i Press.
  6. Chandler, Stuart,Linda Learman (Editd)(2005).Buddhist Missionaries in the Era of Globalization.Honolulu:University of Hawai'i Press.
  7. Chiu Shean-Bii(2004).Taiwan: Compulsory Occupational Pensions Still Dominate.Paper presented at the International Conference on Pensions in Asia: Incentive, Compliance, and Their Role in Retirement,Tokyo:
  8. Taipei Times(2004/03/17)
  9. Croissant, Aurel(2004).Changing Welfare Regimes in East and Southeast Asia: Crisis, Change and Challenge.Social Policy and Administration,38(5),504-524.
  10. Dean, Kenneth(1998).Lord of Three in One: The Spread of a Cult in Southeast China.Princeton:Princeton University Press.
  11. Duara, Prasenjit(1991).Knowledge and Power in the Discourse of Modernity: The Campaigns against Popular Religion in Early Twentieth-Century China.Journal of Asian Studies,50(1),75-76.
  12. Eng, Irene,Yi-Min Lin(2000).Religious Festivities, Communal Rivalry, and Restructuring of Authority in Rural Chaozhou, Southeast China.Journal of Asian Studies,61(4),1259-1285.
  13. Feuchtwang, Stephan(1992).The Imperial Metaphor: Popular Religion in China.London:Routledge.
  14. FG(1996)。中國佛教會在現今教界所扮演的角色。法光,4
  15. Gough, Ian(Edited),Geof Wood (Edited)(2004).Insecurity and Welfare Regimes in Asia, Africa, and Latin America: Social Policy in Development Contexts.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  16. Government Information Office(2007).Taiwan Yearbook 2006.Taipei:GIO.
  17. GSZ(1995)。當袈裟碰到十字架。國會雙週刊,16-19。
  18. GSZ(1995)。星雲擁陳反李引發宗教界要源爭奪戰。
  19. Holliday, Ian(2000).Productivist Welfare Capitalism: Social Policy in East Asia.Political Studies,48,706-723.
  20. Huang, Julia C.(2001).Boston University.
  21. Huang, Julia C.,Christopher Queen(Edited),Charles Prebish,Damien Keown(2003).Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism.London:Routledge Curzon.
  22. Huang, Julia C.,Linda Learman (Edited)(2005).Buddhist Missionaries in the Era of Globalization.Honolulu:University of Hawai'i Press.
  23. Huang, Julia C.,Robert P. Weller(1998).Merit and Mothering: Women and Social Welfare in Taiwanese Buddhism.Journal of Asian Studies,57(2),379-396.
  24. HX(1993)。慈濟魅力政壇傾倒。黑白新聞。
  25. Inglehart, Ronald,Pippa Norris(2003).Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change Around the World.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  26. Jones, Catherine(1990).Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan: Oikonomic Welfare States.Government and Opposition,25,446-462.
  27. Jones, Catherine,Catherine Jones (Edited)(1993).New Perspectives on the Welfare State in Europe.London:Routledge.
  28. Jones, Charles Brewer(1999).Buddhism in Taiwan: Religion and the State, 1660-1990.Honolulu:University of Hawai'i Press.
  29. Jordan, David K,Daniel L. Overmyer(1986).The Flying Phoenix: Aspects of Chinese Sectarianism in Taiwan.Taipei:Caves.
  30. Katz, Paul R.(2003).Religion and the State in Postwar Taiwan.TheChina Quarterly,174,395-417.
  31. Ku Yeun-wen,Roger Goodman(Editd),Gordon White,Huck-ju Kwon(1998).The East Asian Welfare Model.London:Routledge.
  32. Kwon Huck-ju(2005).Transforming the Developmental State in East Asia.Development and Change,35(3),447-497.
  33. Laliber té, André(2003).'Love Transcends Border' or 'Blood is Thicker than Water': The Charity Work of the Buddhist Tzu Chi Foundation in the People's Republic of China.European Journal of East Asian Studies,2(2),243-262.
  34. 聯合報(1995/12/22)
  35. Madsen, Richard(1998).China's Catholics: Tragedy and Hope in an Emerging Civil Society.Berkeley:University of California Press.
  36. Madsen, Richard(2007).Democracy's Dharma: Religious Renaissance and Political Development in Taiwan.Berkeley:University of California Press.
  37. Topic: The Social Aid and Placement of Refugees in 921 Quake Analysis
  38. 民眾日報(1995/09/11)
  39. Nemeth, Roger D.,Donald A. Luidens,Corwin Smidt(2003).Religion as Social Capital: Producing the Common Good.Waco, Texas:Baylor University Press.
  40. NXZ、南投縣政府(2000)。南投縣九二一震災捐助名錄。南投:南投縣政府。
  41. Palmer, David(2005).La fièvre du qigong: guérison, religion et politique en Chine, 1949-1999.Paris:Editions de l'ecole des hautes etudes en science sociale.
  42. Puttnam, Robert(2000).Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community.New York:Simon & Schuster.
  43. Reitman, Valerie(1999).Buddhist Nun Is Taiwan's Master of Inspiration.Los Angeles Times(1999/10/05).
  44. Smidt, Corwin (ed.)(2003).Religion as Social Capital: Producing the Common Good.Waco, Texas:Baylor University Press.
  45. Topics
  46. Tsai, Lily Lee.(2002).Cadres, Temple and Lineage Institutions, and Governance in Rural China.The China Journal,48,1-27.
  47. Welch, Holmes(1968).The Buddhist Revival in China.Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.
  48. Weller, Robert P.(1999).Alternate Civilities: Democracy and Culture in China and Taiwan.Boulder, CO:Westview Press.
  49. Weller, Robert P.,Charles F. Keyes (Edited),Laurel Kendall,Helen Hardacre(1994).Asian Visions of Authority: Religion and the Modern States of East and Southeast Asia.Honolulu:University of Hawai'i Press.
  50. Weller, Robert P.,William C. Kirby (Edited)(2004).Realms of Freedom in Modern China.Stanford:Stanford University Press.
  51. White, Gordon,Roger Goodman,Gordon White (Edited),Huck-ju Kwon(1998).The East Asian Welfare Model: Welfare Orientalism and the State.London:Routledge.
  52. Wong, Joseph(2005).Healthy Democracies: Welfare Politics in Taiwan and South Korea.Ithaca, NY:Cornell University Press.
  53. Wuthnow, Robert(2004).Saving America: Faith-based Services and the Future of Civil Society.Princeton:Princeton University Press.
  54. XTXZ(1996)。新臺灣新聞周刊,14-23。
  55. XXW(1995)。耶穌基督釋迦牟尼大戰。新新聞,10-18。
  56. 臺灣各種奇特宗教總清查
  57. Ye Xiaowen(2000).A Review and Reflection on Religious Work at the Turn of the Century.Tripod,120,27-40.
  58. YZ(1996)。臺灣經驗中最動人的一章。亞洲周刊
  59. 丁仁傑(1999)。社會脈絡中的助人行爲-臺灣佛教慈濟功德會個案研究。臺北:聯經出版社。
  60. 內政部(1994)。宗教論述專輯:社會服務篇。臺北:內政部。
  61. 內政部(1995)。社會教化篇。臺北:內政部。
  62. 王順民(1999)。宗教福利。臺北:亞太圖書。
  63. 王順民(2001)。社會福利析論。臺北:洪葉文化。
  64. 王順民(2001)。非營利組織的轉型:宗教類。臺北:洪葉文化。
  65. 王順民、王溤強、胡慧安、郭登聰、鄒平儀(2002)。社會福利與社會工作。臺北:洪葉文化。
  66. 江燦騰(1995)。臺灣20世紀佛教的轉型與發展。高雄:淨心文教基金會。
  67. 江燦騰(1992)。臺灣佛教與現代社會。臺北:東大出版社。
  68. 何鳳嬌(1996)。臺灣省警務檔案彙編:民意宗教篇。新店,臺北縣:學術歷史。
  69. 吳老德(2001)。正義與福利國家概論。臺北:五南出版社。
  70. 宋光宇(1995)。宗教與社會。臺北:東大出版社。
  71. 李世偉(2002)。臺灣宗教閱覽。臺北:博揚文化。
  72. 官有坦編輯(2000)。非營利組織與社會福利:臺灣本土的個案分析。臺北:亞太圖書。
  73. 林美容、陳淑娟、林美容合編、丁仁傑合編、詹素娟合編(2004)。災難與重建。臺北:中央研究院臺灣史研究所籌備處。
  74. 林萬億(1994)。福利國家:歷史比較的分析。臺北:巨流圖書。
  75. 林萬億編輯(1999)。臺灣社會福利的發展。臺北:五南出版社。
  76. 張世雄(1996)。社會福利的理念與社會安全制度。臺北:唐山書局。
  77. 游祥洲、林美容合編、丁仁傑合編、詹素娟合編(2004)。災難與重建。臺北:中央研究院臺灣史研究所籌備處。
  78. 馮文饒(1993)。碩士論文(碩士論文)。國立中正大學社會福利研究所。
  79. 慈濟(2007)。臺灣慈善四百年。臺北:經典雜誌。
  80. Hope Project
  81. 希望工程
  82. 重建一覽表
  83. 慈濟重建學校關懷紀實
  84. 詹火生(2001)。社會福利政策的新思維。臺北:厚生基金會。
  85. 詹火生合編、古允文合編(1998)。新世紀的社會福利政策。臺北:厚生基金會。
  86. 詹火生編輯(1991)。社會變遷與社會福利。臺北:民主基金會。
  87. 臺灣省文獻委員會(2000)。九二一集集大地震救災紀實。南投:臺灣省文獻委員會。
  88. 劉麗雯(2004)。非營利組織的社會福利服務。臺北:雙葉出版社。
  89. 劉繼同(2003)。生存戰略或文化交流:近代中國基督教會慈善福利事業概概覽。基督教文化學刊(春季刊),9,85-106。
  90. 鄭志明編輯(2000)。宗教與非營利事業。嘉義:南華大學。
  91. 蕭新煌合編、林國明合編(2000)。臺灣的社會福利運動。臺北:巨流圖書。
  92. 謝國興合編、溤燕合編(2000)。九二一震災捐款監督報告書。臺北:全國民間災後重建聯盟。
  93. 謝國興編輯(2001)。全國民間災後重建聯盟兩年工作紀要。臺北:全國民間災後重建聯盟。
  94. 瞿海源合編、顧忠華合編、錢永祥合編(2002)。平等、正義與社會福利。臺北:桂冠出版社。
  95. 羅融(2004)。臺灣的921重建校園。新店:遠足文化。
  96. 釋證嚴編輯(1993)。慈濟年鑑,1966-1992。臺北:慈濟文化出版社。
Times Cited
  1. 達虎˙伊斯馬哈善(2013)。園區居民居住滿意度與經濟產業發展之初探-以高雄杉林大愛永久屋基地為例。樹德科技大學經營管理研究所學位論文。2013。1-59。
  2. 蔡誼蘋(2016)。地震與人道緊急救援:海峽兩岸之比較研究。中山大學中國與亞太區域研究所學位論文。2016。1-173。