Sources and Characteristics of Particulate Matter at Five Locations in an Underground Mine
Sanna Saarikoski；Laura Salo；Matthew Bloss；Jenni Alanen；Kimmo Teinilä；Felipe Reyes；Yeanice Vázquez；Jorma Keskinen；Pedro Oyola；Topi Rönkkö；Hilkka Timonen
Chemical composition ； Aerosol mass spectrometer ； Source apportionment
Aerosol and Air Quality Research
|Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication||
19卷12期（2019 / 12 / 01）
2613 - 2624+ap1
The sources and characteristics of particulate matter (PM) were determined in a modern underground chrome mine in Finland. Measurements were conducted at five locations in the mine: the maintenance area, blasting area, ore pit dumping area, crushing station and conveyor belt. The measurement set-up consisted of a Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) for the particles' chemical composition; an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor, Nano Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and Optical Particle Counter for the particle number and mass size distribution; and an Aethalometer for black carbon (BC). The particle number and mass concentration depended strongly on the measurement location and period. The PM_(10) and the total number concentrations varied from 22 to 1100 μg m^(-3) and 1.7 × 10^3 to 2.3 × 10^5 # cm^(-3), respectively, in the mine. In terms of the composition, the sub-micrometer particles (PM_1) consisted mostly of organic matter and BC, but at the blasting site, the fraction of sulfate was also significant. The SP-AMS data was analyzed with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify and quantify the main sources of PM_1 in the mine. Based on the PMF analysis, the PM_1 originated mostly from diesel engines (35-84%) and blasting (7-60%). The impact of blasting on air quality in mines may become more pronounced in the future as the emissions from diesel engines decrease due to alternative fuels and better engine and after-treatment technologies.