Title

三乘究竟與一乘究竟-兼論印順導師由緣起性空論以證成「一乘究竟」的可能性

Translated Titles

Discussion on the Merits of the Concepts "Three-Vehicles are Ultimate" VS "One Vehicle is Ultimate"

DOI

10.29955/HCJBS.200407.0001

Authors

釋昭慧(Chao-Hwei Shih)

Key Words

一乘究竟 ; 三乘究竟 ; 緣起性空論 ; 迴小向大 ; 妙法蓮華經 ; 開跡顯本論 ; 瑜伽行派 ; 種姓論 ; 成佛的可能性 ; 成佛的必然性 ; One-vehicle is Ultimate ; Three-vehicles are Ultimate ; the Theory of Dependent Origination and Emptiness ; redevelop the mind to great Bodhi mind ; Saddharma-puNDarīka SUtra (Lotus Sutra) ; the Theory of Eliminating Attachment to the Buddha of Transformation but Seeing the True Nature of the Buddha ; the School of Yogācara ; the Theory of Spiritual Capacity ; the possibility of attaining Buddhahood ; the certainty for attaining Buddhahood

PublicationName

玄奘佛學研究

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

1期(2004 / 07 / 01)

Page #

21 - 52

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

「三乘究竟」與「一乘究竟」,是大乘佛教史上的一樁重大爭論。本文從部派佛教、性空大乘、《法華經》與瑜伽行派,分別探索個中之論述脈絡,並依緣起性空論來探索「一乘究竟」的可能性。無論是主張緣起性空的中觀學派,還是主張本有或新熏種子說的唯識學派,在學理的邏輯上,必然會主張「三乘究竟」-三乘聖者同樣證入緣起法性(理佛性),而且各依發心與修習的因緣(行佛性),而分別證得三乘聖位。至《法華經》方才以「化城」來形容二乘涅槃,說那只是過渡的休憩站。中觀學派還可依緣起性空的原理,邏輯性地推論出「一切眾生成佛的可能性」,但瑜伽行派卻可推出「部分(聲聞種姓、獨覺種姓與無姓種性)眾生不能成佛的必然性」,於是,成佛的必然性就只有在「菩薩種姓」眾生方始存在,而成佛的可能性,也就較諸中觀學派更為縮小範圍,在「不定種姓」眾生之中方才具足。依印順導師思想的系統理論,「一乘究竟」論不但不可能依真常唯心論,建立在時間上往前無限延伸的「佛性本有論」,也不可能依《法華經》,建立在時間上往後無限延伸的「開跡顯本論」。因此,任何階位的二乘聖者皆可迴小向大,乃至一切眾生必當成佛的一乘究竟論,是很難在「緣起性空論」的基礎上成立的。

English Abstract

The concepts of ”Three-Vehicles are Ultimate” versus ”One-Vehicle is Ultimate” have always been a subject of debate in the history of Mahayana Buddhism. This article investigates the thread of thoughts in the discussions presented by Sectarian Buddhism (after the Buddha's ParinirvāNa), the Mahayana School of Emptiness, the Lotus Sutra, and the Yogācara Sect. With the Theory of Dependent Origination and Emptiness as a basis, this article tries to explore the possibility of the concept of ”One Vehicle is Ultimate”. From the logical deduction of the theory, the School of Mādhyamika, that upholds the principle of Dependent Origination and Emptiness, and the School of Consciousness-only, that talks about original existence or the nurture of new seeds, both certainly suggest that ”Three-Vehicles are Ultimate”. The noble ones of the Three Vehicles can all penetrate and realise the Dharma nature of Dependent Origination (i.e. the Buddha-nature in principle). These noble ones, depending on the development of their minds and the causes and conditions of their practice (i.e. the Buddha-nature in practice), can also attain the noble stages (fruitions) of the Three Vehicles respectively. It is only when we come to the teachings of the Lotus Sutra that the attainment of Nirvana of the Two Vehicles is exemplified as a ”Transformation City/Fort”. This can then be seen as a rest station that is only temporary. Based on the theory of Dependent Origination and Emptiness, the School of Mādhyamika has also logically deduced that ”All sentient beings have the potential to attain Buddhahood”. However, through separate deduction, the School of Yogācara believes that part of the sentient beings (the Zrāvaka, pratyakabuddha and the non-spiritual foundation) will never be able to attain Buddhahood. The certainty for attaining Buddhahood can only be found among the sentient beings with Bodhisattva spiritual foundation. In terms of the possibility of attaining Buddhahood, the scope of the Yogācara School is much narrower compared to that of the School of Mādhyamika. To the School of Consciousness-only, only sentient beings with uncertain spiritual foundation may attain Buddhahood.According to the systematic thoughts and discussion of Venerable Yin Shun, the concept of ”One Vehicle is Ultimate” cannot be founded on the Truly Eternal Mere Mind Theory, which tries to back track time indefinitely and says that all sentient beings equipped with Buddha nature in the origin. Nor can the concept be founded on the teachings of the Lotus Sutra, which try to extend time forward indefinitely, emphasising on eliminating attachment to the Buddha of transformation, but seeing the true nature/virtues of the Buddha that are boundless and endless. Thus, it is difficult to support the concept of ”One Vehicle is Ultimate”, which says that the noble ones of the Two Vehicles can redevelop their minds to the great Bodhi mind at any stage, and there is certainty that all sentient beings can attain Buddhahood, by basing its foundation on the Theory of Dependent Origination and Emptiness.

Topic Category 人文學 > 宗教學
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