Translated Titles

Multi-Motivations Hypothesis of Happiness: An Experimental Examination of Donating Behavior




江莉莉(Lily Jiang);于席正(Hsi-Cheng Yu)

Key Words

快樂 ; 動機 ; 捐贈 ; 精神力場 ; 單位快樂 ; Happiness ; Motivation ; Donation ; Mental-Force-Field ; Util



Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

8卷1期(2014 / 04 / 01)

Page #

1 - 39

Content Language


Chinese Abstract

根據效用主義的看法,快樂(happiness)是人類的終極價值,外顯行為的目的在於避苦求樂,故快樂追求係驅策行為之根本。本文藉由現金利得與捐贈議題的實驗,驗證于席正和江莉莉(2011, 2012)「動機—精神力場—行為假說」之心理決策流程存在的實質性,並利用Ng(1996)提出之「最小可感知的增量」作為苦樂感受的單位計數。根據實驗結果歸納以下主要結論:(1)個體的苦樂感受顯著存在本能性、社會性與大我世界(we-world)等主要快樂動機;(2)多元動機間的趨向衝突(approachapproachconflict)引導最適行為的調整;(3)快樂動機透過驅使決策的改變,亦使得對應不同決策結果產生的快樂感受呈現顯著的差異;以及(4)在凸顯大我世界動機後,個體的快樂感受顯著高於未凸顯前之情況。

English Abstract

According to Utilitarianism, happiness is the ultimate goal for human beings. The desire of a happy life drives people's behavior toward the pursuit of happiness. Based on the theoretical framework of happiness proposed by Yu and Jiang (2012), this paper undertakes a series of experiments which investigate the determinants of money payoff to test the hypotheses of motivationmental force-behavior, as well as the levels of happiness associated with behavioral decisions. The main results include: (1) The motivations of life instincts, social conformity and we-world are the main driving forces in deciding the allocation between money payoff and donation. (2) The approach-approach conflicts among various motivations lead individuals to adjust behavior optimally. (3) In each extensional situation, an individual's anticipated degree of happiness, measured in term of "just perceivable units" (Ng, 1996), from the updated decision is significantly different from the levels attained in the previous stages. (4) Once an individual's we-world motivation is evoked, the decision of the allocation between money payoff and donation brings forth higher degree of happiness which is never anticipated before.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 社會學
社會科學 > 經濟學
社會科學 > 政治學
  1. Aspinwall, Lisa G.,Taylor, Shelley E.(1993).Effects of Social Comparison Direction, Threat, and Self-Esteem on Affect, Self-Evaluation, and Expected Success.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,64(5),708-722.
  2. Baumeister, Roy F.,Vohs, Kathleen D.(2003).Willpower, Choice, and Self-Control.Time and Decision: Economic and Psychological Perspectives on Intertemporal Choice,New York:
  3. Bentham, Jeremy(1996).An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation.Oxford:Clarendon.
  4. Cofer, Charles N.,Appley, Mortimer H.(1964).Motivation: Theory and Research.Oxford, England:J. Wiley).
  5. Cohen, Jonathan D.(2005).The Vulcanization of the Human Brain: A Neural Perspective on Interactions between Cognition and Emotion.Journal of Economic Perspectives,19(4),3-24.
  6. Easterlin, Richard A.(1974).Does Economic Growth Improve the Human Lot? Some Empirical Evidence.Nations and Households in Economic Growth,New York:
  7. Festinger, Leon(1954).A Theory of Social Comparison Processes.Human Relations,7,117-140.
  8. Freeman, Linton C.(1992).The Sociological Concept of "Group": An Empirical Test of Two Models.American Journal of Sociology,98(1),152-166.
  9. Freud, Sigmund. 1915[1949]. Instincts and Their Vicissitudes, trans. by Joan Riviere, Collected Papers of Sigmund Freud (London: Hogarth), pp. 60-83
  10. Jevons, William S. 1905. Essays on Economics (London: Macmillan).
  11. Kahneman, Daniel,Krueger, Alan B.,Schkade, David A.,Schwarz, Norbert,Stone, Arthur A.(2004).A Survey Method for Characterizing Daily Life Experience: The Day Reconstruction Method.Science,306(5702),1776-1780.
  12. Kahneman, Daniel,Tversky, Amos(1979).Prospect Theory - Analysis of Decision under Risk.Econometrica,47(2),263-291.
  13. Kahneman, Daniel,Wakker, Peter P.,Sarin, Rakesh(1997).Back to Bentham? Exploration of Experienced Utility.Quarterly Journal of Economics,112(2),375-405.
  14. Knight, John,Song, Lina,Gunatilaka, Ramani(2009).Subjective Well-Being and Its Determinants in Rural China.China Economic Review,20(4),635-649.
  15. Kohm, Serge-Christophe(ed.),Ythier, Jean M.(ed.)(2006).Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity.North Holland.
  16. Loewenstein, George(1987).Anticipation and the Valuation of Delayed Consumption.Economic Journal,97(387),666-684.
  17. Loewenstein, George(1996).Out of Control: Visceral Influences on Behavior.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,65(3),272-292.
  18. Loewenstein, George and Ted O'Donoghue. 2007. “The Heat of the Moment: Modeling Interactions between Affect and Deliberation,” Cornell Economics: http://www.economics.cornell.edu/edo1/ heat.pdf (retrieved: March 10, 2013).
  19. Luks, Allan(1988).Helper's High: Volunteering Makes People Feel Good, Physically and Emotionally.Psychology Today,22(10),34-42.
  20. Luttmer, Erzo F. P.(2005).Neighbors as Negatives: Relative Earnings and Well-Being.Quarterly Journal of Economics,120(3),963-1002.
  21. Lyubomirsky, Sonja,Ross, Lee(1997).Hedonic Consequences of Social Comparison: A Contrast of Happy and Unhappy People.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,73(6),1141-1157.
  22. Maslow, Abraham H.(1970).Motivation and Personality.New York:Harper and Row.
  23. Maslow, Abraham H. 1943. “A Theory of Human Motivation,” Psychological Review, vol. 50, no. 4 (July), pp. 370-396
  24. Ng, Yew-Kwang(1996).Happiness Surveys: Some Comparability Issues and an Exploratory Survey Based on Just Perceivable Increments.Social Indicators Research,38(1),1-27.
  25. Pérez-Asenjo, Eduardo(2011).If Happiness is Relative, against Whom do We Compare Ourselves? Implications for Labour Supply.Journal of Population Economics,24(4),1411-1442.
  26. Post, Stephen G.(2005).Altruism, Happiness, and Health: It's Good to be Good.International Journal of Behavioral Medicine,12(2),66-77.
  27. Schwartz, Barry,Ward, Andrew,Monterosso, John,Lyubomirsky, Sonja,White, Katherine,Lehman, Darrin R.(2002).Maximizing versus Satisficing: Happi-ness is a Matter of Choice.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,83(5),1178-1197.
  28. Stark, Oded,Taylor, J. Edward(1991).Migration Incentives, Migration Types: Role of Relative Deprivation.Economic Journal,101(408),1163-1178.
  29. Stark, Oded,Taylor, J. Edward(1989).Relative Deprivation and International Migration.Demography,26(1),1-14.
  30. Theurer, Kristine,Wister, Andrew(2010).Altruistic Behaviour and Social Capital as Predictors of Well-Being among Older Canadians.Ageing and Society,30(1),157-181.
  31. Tversky, Amos,Kahneman, Daniel(1991).Loss Aversion in Riskless Choice: A Reference Dependent Model.Quarterly Journal of Economics,106(4),1039-1061.
  32. Veenhoven, R.(1991).Is Happiness Relative?.Social Indicators Research,24(1),1-34.
  33. 于席正、江莉莉(2011)。快樂主義下的道德價值。2011經濟倫理學術與實務研討會論文集,台北:
  34. 于席正、江莉莉(2012)。試論消費決策與幸福:動機—精神力場—行為假說。經濟學季刊,11(3),969-996。