Title

牟宗三先生之道德的形上學諸涵義:宋明儒學之義理形態與工夫論

Translated Titles

Implications of Professor MouTsung-san’s Moral Metaphysics: The Different Models of Song-Ming Confucianism and Moral Cultivation Approaches

DOI

10.6743/NAJ.201708_34.0002

Authors

李瑞全(LEE , Shui-chuen)

Key Words

牟宗三 ; 道德形上學 ; 孔子 ; 宋明儒義理形態 ; 工夫論進路 ; MouTsung-san ; moral metaphysics ; Confucius ; Song-Ming Confucianism ; moral cultivation approach

PublicationName

新亞學報

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

34卷(2017 / 08 / 01)

Page #

57 - 92

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

牟宗三先生以「道德形上學」概括宋明儒學的義理。此詞有三義:第一義是聖人之精誠惻怛的生命所彰顯的道德之莊嚴性與純粹性;第二義為聖人由仁心無外之道德實踐即頓時普化為宇宙萬物之道,實現心性之理通於宇宙存在之理,而達成仁者與天地萬物為一體的宇宙論意義,建立儒者之宇宙秩序即道德秩序;第三義則由聖人之精誠惻怛生命具體實現超越而內在的無限價值。牟先生因而批判康德的倫理學只建立第一義,而宋明儒者則擴充儒家之義理,充份完成「道德形上學」。本文藉《論語》與《孟子》之文獻說明如何證成道德形上學之三義。最後,本文特別強調牟先生所陳之三義都是由孔子所成就之聖人之生命境界而得以真實化,進而依牟先生強調的孔子之「以人體法」的要義,申論宋明儒學之「工夫進路」的殊勝處。在聖人境界所示,「即本體即工夫」,「即工夫即本體」是工夫實踐的兩廻環,而宋明儒者終身都在申論和體會此兩廻環的實踐。因此,由工夫實踐入手,更能彰顯宋明儒諸家之要義和異同之處。

English Abstract

Professor MouTsung-san employs the term moral metaphysics to capture the essence of the philosophies of Song-Ming Confucianism. According to Mou, moral metaphysics has three important meanings. First, it reveals through the authentic and compassionate life of Confucius the dignity and purity of morality. Second, by the unboundedness of the ren of the heart/mind as manifested in Confucius’ life, the subjectivity of ren achieves a universal and cosmological meaning as the Dao of all things in the Universe. Hence it realizes the teaching that the Dao or principle of the heart/mind (xin) and nature (xing) is at one with all thing in the Universe. Third, the sage’s life, with its authenticity and compassion, is an embodiment of the transcendental principle that is at the same time immanent within our xin and/or xing. Thus, Professor Mou criticizes Kant for realizing only the first phase of morality, that is, its dignity and purity, while Song-Ming Confucianism successfully realizes the threefold aspects of moral metaphysics. In this paper, I employ passages from The Analects and Mencius to substantiate and illustrate the threefold aspects of the Confucian moral metaphysics. Finally, I put particular emphasis on the fact that the three meanings that Professor Mou delineates are the result of the actualization of Dao through moral cultivation by Confucius and argue that, as Professor Mou stresses, the embodiment of transcendental Dao in a concrete life, is the distinguish approach of Song-Ming Confucians. From the perspective of a sage, the mutual identification of ben-ti (xin/xing) and kung-fu(moral cultivation), is a two-way circular circuit of practical moral cultivation. Achieving saintliness through this two-way approach is the life-long pursuit of the Song-Ming Confucians. For this reason, the essence of their teaching and the commonalities and differences between them can best be brought to the fore by approaching them with a moral cultivation analysis.

Topic Category 人文學 > 哲學
人文學 > 宗教學
人文學 > 歷史學
人文學 > 中國文學