Transesophageal Echocardiography Examination in Ailuropoda melanoleuca
Yi-Chia Wang；Man-Ling Wang；Jun-Cheng Guo；Yen-Hsu Lai；Pao-Jung Wang；Wei-Zen Sun；Chi-Hsiang Huang
echocardiography ； cardiovascular function ； panda
Asian Journal of Anesthesiology
|Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication||
57卷1期（2019 / 03 / 01）
4 - 9
Objective: Cardiac function analysis for Ailuropoda melanoleuca, also called giant panda, with transthoracic echocardiography has several limitations, such as limited probe position area and poor echo window. We want to determine the feasibility of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for cardiac examination in Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Methods: Eight-year-old male Ailuropoda melanoleuca was anesthetized by intramuscular ketamine and followed by inhalation isoflurane with spontaneous respiration. TEE probe was inserted through mouth. Comprehensive examinations were done by two-dimensional (2D), Doppler method, 3D zoom, and 3D full volume mode for their cardiac evaluation. Results: The structure of heart was similar to human. We found mild mitral regurgitation. Right ventricle and pulmonary artery were free of any organic lesions. We did comprehensive multiplane examination by American Society of Echocardiography/Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesia guideline, but transgastric (TG) and deep TG view were not approachable. 3D reconstruction offered high quality image and quantitative calculations. Complete examinations took less than 30 min. There was no significant hemodynamic change during probe insertion, and no oropharyngeal trauma certified by dentist. Conclusion: TEE is a reasonable semi-invasive tool for cardiac function evaluation. Though some anatomical limitations prohibited comprehensive 2D views, improvements such as 3D images help to give detailed cardiac examination.