Title

以三維構造幾何形貌和大地測量分析台灣西北部新竹地區之新期構造活動

Translated Titles

Analysis of Neotectonics Based on 3-D Structural Geometry and Geodetic Measurements in Hsinchu area, Northwestern Taiwan

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2012.00086

Authors

黃宣維

Key Words

平衡剖面 ; 三維斷層模型 ; 新竹地區 ; 斷層幾何模型 ; 剖面回復 ; 構造縮短量 ; 三維空間地震分布 ; Balanced cross-section ; 3D fault model ; Restoration ; Hsinchu area ; shortening ; 3D earthquakes distributions

PublicationName

臺灣大學地質科學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2012年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

胡植慶

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

斷層活動造成之同震地表變形以及地震規模與斷層幾何形貌有緊密之關聯,故了解各區域之斷層幾何形貌即成為研究新期構造活動與地震災防治之重要課題。台灣西部麓山帶之斷層幾何形貌於近年相關研究之下愈趨明朗,但多數研究僅止於二維剖面之建立,三維斷層形貌之討論較少,因此本研究之重點即為建立新竹地區麓山帶之斷層的三維形貌以及其時空演化關係。本研究區域北起新竹斷層及新城斷層,南至鵝公髻斷層與和平斷層,包括內麓山帶與外麓山帶的區域。新竹地區的構造特性,以內麓山帶的北北東-南南西走向之逆衝斷層與緊密褶皺為主,外麓山帶則以東-西走向的走向滑移斷層與平緩寬廣的褶皺,以地震地體構造而言,內麓山帶的地震分布明顯多於外麓山帶。本研究首先建構通過新竹斷層與新城斷層的剖面,並使用2DMove軟體回復剖面,了解地質構造的演育歷史;接著,本研究亦利用GeoSec 3D軟體整合新竹地區之構造平衡地質剖面,建立深部的三維斷層幾何模型,並整合二維的地質剖面與地震活動分布;最後,使用GOCAD軟體整合三維斷層模型與地震重定位資料,呈現斷層深部形貌與地震活動於時空分布的關係。   就盆地演化而言,以地質剖面重建分析的結果得知,新竹地區於早中新世時存在發達的正斷層活動,造成整體地層往東漸增厚的現象,而打鹿頁岩反而往東尖滅。根據回復地質剖面之結果,竹東斷層、北埔斷層、新竹斷層和新城斷層為逆時序發育之斷層,發育順序依序為軟橋斷層、竹東斷層及北埔斷層,接著先發育出青草湖背斜,再被新竹斷層切穿,最後新城斷層沿層間滑動衝出地表;由剖面地層之錯移量顯示新竹斷層之錯移量為1318公尺,新城斷層則為887公尺,假設此兩斷層最早活動時間為卓蘭層沉積結束時,則新竹斷層與新城斷層長期滑移速率分別為0.43 mm/yr 及0.37 mm/yr,又因為新城斷層之近期活動速率大於0.37 mm/yr,因此新城斷層可能為近期新竹地區較活躍的構造;又跨過新城斷層的平均應變率為-0.05 μ strain/yr,除大地震造成之剪應變降後,本研究認為新城斷層的再現周期約為600-6000年。 由地震活動分布與地質剖面分析,以軟橋斷層為界,內麓山帶的地震明顯多於外麓山帶,軟橋斷層深部轉折處之團狀地震分布指示此為應力累積之處。三維空間地震分布與斷層模型則說明,軟橋斷層深部存在四團時空相近之地震,由南往北依序於1999年、2007年、2003年及2006年發生地震事件。本研究建立之三維斷層模型顯示,新竹地區內麓山帶的斷層至深部變緩,外麓山帶的斷層往深部則變陡峭。而位在內麓山帶與外麓山帶邊界的軟橋斷層淺部為高角度斷層,至深部則呈現階梯狀形貌,因此,本研究建議新竹地區的基底滑脫面由西而東為6至7公里漸變為10公里深。

English Abstract

Earthquake magnitude and coseismic deformation are strongly related to the geometry of the seismogenic fault. Consequently, the construction of a comprehensive 3-D fault geometry model for the linkage and interaction of fault systems becomes one of the essential topics in neotectonic studies. The Western Foothills of Taiwan is undergoing an active deformation of the Taiwan orogeny demonstrated by the frequent seismicity and destructive earthquake events. The study region includes several faults-and-folds systems from Hsinchu and Hsincheng faults in the north to Okungchi and Hoping faults in the south in the internal and external western Foothills in Hsinchu area. The structures in Hsinchu area show wide and gentle folds associated with NNW-SSW trending thrust faults in internal Foothills and tide and steep folds associated with the E-W trending thrust faults in external Foothills. From the seimostectonic viewpoint, the earthquakes frequently occur in internal Foothills than external Foothills. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the linkage of subsurface structures between internal and external western Foothills in Hsinchu area. To this purpose, we restore a cross-section across Hsinchu and Hsincheng faults, and clarify the overall structural evolution of major fault systems based on this restoration. By integrating eleven CPC geological cross-sections and the profile in this study, we use GeoSec 3D software to construct 3D fault geometry model beneath Hsinchu area. Finally, we use GOCAD software to integrate 3D relocated seismicity and 3D fault model in order to explore the relationships between active structures and seismicities. In terms of the profile reconstruction, the thickness of strata gradually increasing eastward was induced by abundant normal faults activating in early Miocene. However, Talu shale pinched out instead. According to restoration of balanced cross section, the Juanchiao fault, Chutung fault and Peipu fault are in-sequence fault systems, meanwhile the Hsinchu and Hsincheng faults are out-of-sequence fault systems. The Chingtsaohu anticline formed following the Peipu fault. After that, Hsinchu fault cut through the Chingtsaohu anticline and Hsincheng fault, bedding fault, formed in the end. The displacements along the Hsinchu and Hsincheng fauts are 1318 m and 887 m, respectively. We assumed the faults formed after the deposition of Cholan formation, therefore, the long term slip rates for Hsinchu and Hsincheng faults are 0.43 mm/yr and 0.37 mm/yr respectively. Also, short term slip rate of Hsincheng fault is larger than 0.37 mm/yr. As a result, it implies Hsincheng fault is possible a recently active structure in Hsinchu area. The average strain rate across Hsincheng fault is -0.05 μ strain/yr, and the coseismic strain drop divided by strain rate gets 600-6000 years. Therefore, we suggest the recurrence interval of Hsincheng fault is 600-6000 years. Base on the analysis of seismicity and geological profiles, the numbers of earthquakes are larger in internal than external foothills. Clusters at the bend of Juanchiao fault at depth imply that it is the location of stress generating. According to 3D seismicity and fault model, earthquake events occur northward in 1999, 2007, 2003, 2006. The 3D fault model indicates faults at depth become gentler in internal foothills, while faults in external foothills turn into steeper. The boundary fault, Juanchiao fault, shows subsurface high angle thrust and stepped fault geometry at depth. Furthermore, the detachment becomes deeper eastward, from 6-7 km to 10 km.

Topic Category 基礎與應用科學 > 地球科學與地質學
理學院 > 地質科學研究所
Reference
  1. 江婉綺,2005,竹苗地區地質構造之砂盒物理模型研究,國立成功大學地球科學 研究所碩士論文,共104頁。
    連結:
  2. 林書帆,2007,竹東重力低區成因之探討,國立中央大學地球物理研究所碩士論文,共92頁。
    連結:
  3. 黃姝琳,2009,台灣南部嘉義地區麓山帶構造型態轉換之研究,國立台灣大學地質科學研究所碩士論文,共101頁。
    連結:
  4. 黃鐘,2007,台中盆地北側斷層構造與同震地表變形研究,國立台灣大學地質科學研究所碩士論文,共106頁。
    連結:
  5. 劉力豪,2004,竹東丘陵的活動斷層古地震及相關活動性研究,國立台灣大學地質科學研究所碩士論文,共90頁。
    連結:
  6. 王佳彬、楊耿明,2004,構造平橫剖面分析在石油探勘的應用,石油季刊,第40卷,第3期,1-11頁。
    連結:
  7. Bucher, W. H. (1933), The Deformation of the Earth's Crust: An Inductive Approach to the Problems of Diastrophism, 518 pp., Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
    連結:
  8. Angelier, J., Lee, J. C., Chu, H. T., Hu, J. C., Lu, C. Y., Chan, Y. C., Lin, T. J., Font, Y., and Deffomtainers, B. (2001), Le seisme de Chichi (1999) et sa place dans l'oregene de Taiwan, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Earth Planet. Sci, 333, 5-21.
    連結:
  9. Barr, T. D., and Dahlen, F. A. (1990), Constraints on friction and stress in the Taiwan fold-and-thrust belt from heat flow and geochronology, Geology, 18, 111-115.
    連結:
  10. Carena, S., Suppe, J., and Kao, H. (2002), Active detachment of Taiwan illuminated by small earthquakes and its control of first-order topography, Geology, 30(10), 935-938.
    連結:
  11. Chamberlin, R. T. (1910), The Appalachian folds of central Pennsylvania, J. Geol., 18(3), 228-251.
    連結:
  12. Chamberlin, R. T. (1919), The building of the Colorado Rockies, J. Geol., 27(4), 225-251.
    連結:
  13. Chan, Y. C., Chen, Y. G., Shih, T. Y., and Huang, C. (2007), Characterizing the Hsincheng active fault in northern Taiwan using airborne LiDAR data: Detailed geomorphic features and their structural implications, J. Asian Earth Sci., 31(3), 303-316.
    連結:
  14. Chapple, W. M. (1978), Mechanics of thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 89, 1189-1198.
    連結:
  15. Chester, J. S., and Chester, F. M. (1990), Fault-propagation folds above thrusts with constant dip, J. Struct. Geol., 12(7), 903-910.
    連結:
  16. Dahlen, F. A. (1990), Critical taper model of fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 18, 55-99.
    連結:
  17. Dahlstrom, C. D. A. (1969), Balanced cross sections, Can. J. Earth Sci., 6, 743-757.
    連結:
  18. Davis, D., Suppe, J., and Dahlen, F. A. (1983), Mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges, J. Geophy. Res., 88, 1153-1172.
    連結:
  19. Dolan, J. F., Christofferson, S. A., and Shaw, J. H. (2003), Recognition of paleoearthquakes on the Puente Hill Blind thrust fault, Chlifornia Sci., 300, 115-118.
    連結:
  20. Fischer, M. P., Woodward, N. B., and Mitchell, M. M. (1992), The kinematics of break-thrust folds, J. Struct. Geol., 14(4), 451-460.
    連結:
  21. Homza, T. X., and Wallace, W. K. (1995), Geometric and kinematic models for detachment folds with fixed and variable detachment depths, J. Struct. Geol., 17(4), 575-588.
    連結:
  22. Hossack, J. R. (1979), Use of balanced cross-sections in the caculation of orogenic contraction - review, J. Geol. Soc., 136, 705-711.
    連結:
  23. Kanamori, H., and Brodsky, E. (2004), The physics of earthquakes, Rep. Prog. Phys., 67, 1429-1496.
    連結:
  24. Lacombe, O., Mouthereau, F., Angelier, J., Chu, H. T., and Lee, J. C. (2003), Frontal belt curvature and oblique ramp development at an obliquely collided irregular margin: Geometry and kinematics of the NW Taiwan fold-thrust belt, Tectonics, 22(3).
    連結:
  25. Lee, C. I., Chang, Y. L., and Coward, M. P. (2002), Inversion tectonics of the fold-and thrust belt, western Taiwan, Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. paper, 358, 13-30.
    連結:
  26. Lee, J. C., Chu, H. T., Angelier, J., Chan, Y. C., Hu, J. C., Lu, C. Y., and Rau, R. J. (2002), Geometry and structure of northern surface ruptures of the 1999 Mw=7.6 Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake: Influence from inherited fold belt structures, J. Struct. Geol., 24(1), 173-192.
    連結:
  27. Lin, A. T., Watts, A. B., and Hesselbo, S. P. (2003), Cenozoic stratigraphy and subsidence history of the South China Sea margin in the Taiwan region, Basin Res., 15, 453-478.
    連結:
  28. Liu, C. H., and Pan, Y. S. (1984), Seismic stratigraphic study on the Tertiary sequence in the Hsinchu basin, Taiwan, Petrol. Geol. Taiwan(20), 97-112.
    連結:
  29. Malavieille, J., and Trullenque, G. (2009), Consequences of continental subduction on forearc basin and accretionary wedge deformation in SE Taiwan: Insights from analogue modeling, Tectonophysics, 466(3-4), 377-394.
    連結:
  30. Marrett, R., and Bentham, P. A. (1997), Geometric analysis of hybrid fault-propagation/detachment folds, J. Struct. Geol., 19(3-4), 243-248.
    連結:
  31. Medwedeff, D. A., and Suppe, J. (1997), Multibend fault-bend folding, J. Struct. Geol., 19(3-4), 279-292.
    連結:
  32. Mercier, E., Outtani, F., and De Lamotte, D. F. (1997), Late-stage evolution of fault-propagation folds: Principles and example, J. Struct. Geol., 19(2), 185-193.
    連結:
  33. Mitra, S. (1990), Fault-propagation folds: Geometry, kinematic evolution and hydrocarbon traps, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull., 74(6), 921-945.
    連結:
  34. Mitra, S. (2002), Structural models of faulted detachment folds, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull., 86(9), 1673-1694.
    連結:
  35. Shaw, J. H., Hook, S. C., and Suppe, J. (1994), Structural trend analysis by axial surface mapping, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull., 78(5), 700-721.
    連結:
  36. Shyu, J. B. H., Sieh, K., Chen, Y.-G., and Liu, C.-S. (2005), Neotectonic architecture of Taiwan and its implications for future large earthquakes, J. Geophys. Res., 110(B8), B08402.
    連結:
  37. Suppe, J. (1983), Geometry and kinematics of fault-bend folding, Am. J. Sci., 283(7), 684-721.
    連結:
  38. Suppe, J., Sabat, F., Munoz, J. A., Poblet, J., Roca, E., and Verges, J. (1997), Bed-by-bed fold growth by kink-band migration: Sant Llorenc de Morunys, eastern Pyrenees, J. Struct. Geol., 19(3-4), 443-461.
    連結:
  39. Tang, C. H. (1968), Photogeological observations on the low hilly terrain and coastal plain area of Hsinchu, Taiwan, Petrol. Geol. Taiwan(6), 71-79.
    連結:
  40. Teng, L. S. (1990), Geotectonic evolution of late Cenozoic arc-continent collision in Taiwan, Tectonophysics, 183(1-4), 57-76.
    連結:
  41. Wu, Y. M., Chang, C. H., Zhao, L., Shyu, J. B. H., Chen, Y. G., Sieh, K., and Avouac, J. P. (2007), Seismic tomography of Taiwan: Improved constraints from a dense network of strong motion stations, J. Geophy. Res., 112, B08312.
    連結:
  42. Yang, K. M., Huang, S. T., Wu, J. C., Ting, H. H., and Mei, W. W. (2006), Review and new insights on foreland tectonics in western Taiwan, Int. Geol. Rev., 48(10), 910-941.
    連結:
  43. Yang, K. M., Wu, J. C., Ting, H. H., Wang, J. B., Chi, W. R., and Kuo, C. L. (1994), Sequential deformation in foothills belt, Hsinchu and Miaoli areas: Implications in hydrocarbon accumulation, Petrol. Geol. Taiwan(29), 47-74.
    連結:
  44. Yang, K. M., Wu, J. C., Wickham, J. S., Ting, H. H., Wang, J. B., and Chi, W. R. (1996), Transverse structures in Hsinchu and Miaoli areas: Structural mode and evolution in foothills belt, northwestern Taiwan, Petrol. Geol. Taiwan(30), 111-150.
    連結:
  45. Yu, C. Y., Yang, C. H., Yang, K. M., Cheng, R. C., and Huang, S. T. (2009), A study of complex substructures in a foothill belt of northwestern Taiwan using two-dimensional gravity multiple-source model inversion, Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci., 20(6), 791-798.
    連結:
  46. Yu, S. B., Chen, H. Y., and Kuo, L. C. (1997), Velocity field of GPS stations in the Taiwan area, Tectonophysics, 274(1-3), 41-59.
    連結:
  47. Yu, S. B., Kuo, L. C., Punongbayan, R. S., and Ramos, F. G. (1999), GPS observation of crustal deformation in Taiwan-Luzon region, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(7), 923-926.
    連結:
  48. Yue, L.-F., Suppe, J., and Hung, J.-H. (2005), Structural geology of a classic thrust belt earthquake: the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake Taiwan (Mw=7.6), J. Struct. Geol., 27(11), 2058-2083.
    連結:
  49. 參 考 文 獻
  50. 中文部分:
  51. 地質圖
  52. 何春蓀,1986,臺灣地質概論,臺灣地質圖說明書,經濟部中央地質調查所,共163頁。
  53. 中國石油公司,1978,桃園-新竹地質圖 (1:100,000),中國石油公司台灣油礦探勘總處出版。
  54. 中國石油公司,1994,苗栗地質圖 (1:100,000),中國石油公司台灣油礦探勘總處出版。
  55. 何信昌,1994,臺灣地質圖及說明書,苗栗圖幅(1:50,000),經濟部中央地質調查所。
  56. 塗明寬、陳文政,1990,臺灣地質圖及說明書,中壢圖幅(1:50,000),經濟部中央地質調查所,共53頁。
  57. 塗明寬、陳文政,1991,臺灣地質圖及說明書,竹東圖幅(1:50,000),經濟部中央地質調查所。
  58. 劉桓吉,1989,臺灣地質圖及說明書,新竹圖幅(1:50,000),經濟部中央地質調查所。
  59. 碩博士論文
  60. 期刊、專書及報告
  61. 王乾盈、楊榮堃、蔡道賜,1991,爆竹震源淺層反射震測探測新城斷層,第3屆台灣地區地球物理研討會論文集,382-395頁。
  62. 石同生、盧詩丁、林偉雄、李元希,2003,新城斷層定位與斷層活動性研究,經濟部中央地質調查所特刊,第十四號,37-52頁。
  63. 石瑞銓、王維豪、李元希,2009,地震地質與地變動潛勢分析,斷層帶地下構造調查研究(3/4),經濟部中央地質調查所報告,共184頁。
  64. 石瑞銓、陳文山、林啟文,2003,新竹東方新城斷層之P波與SH波淺層震測調查,經濟部中央地質調查所特刊,第十四號,1-9頁。
  65. 何春蓀,1986,台灣地質概論第二版-台灣地質圖說明書,經濟部中央地質調查所出版,共164頁。
  66. 李元希、石同生、盧詩丁、林燕慧、林偉雄,2002,新城斷層與新竹斷層活動性研究,「台灣之第四紀」第九次研討會論文集,12-15頁。
  67. 林啟文、張徽正、盧詩丁、石同生、黃文正,2000,台灣活動斷層概論-五十萬分之一臺灣活動斷層分布圖說明書,第二版,經濟部中央地質調查所特刊,第十三號,共122頁。
  68. 林啟文、陳致言、石瑞銓,2003,臺灣北部斗煥坪斷層與大平地斷層的野外觀察, 經濟部中央地質調查所特刊,第十四號,53-65頁。
  69. 林啟文、盧詩丁、石同生、陳致言、林燕慧,2007,台灣北部的活動斷層:兩萬五千分之一活動斷層條帶圖說明書,經濟部中央地質調查所特刊,第十九號,共130頁。
  70. 林啟文、鍾瑋、侯進雄,2005,臺灣北部新城斷層與新竹斷層的一些構造特性,經濟部中央地質調查所特刊,第十四號,49-60頁。
  71. 胡植慶、劉啟清、饒瑞鈞、張午龍、陳卉瑄、鄭錦桐,2010,斷層活動性觀測研究第二階段,斷層監測與潛勢分析研究(2/4),經濟部中央地質調查所報告,共253頁。
  72. 莊恭周、張渝龍、周定芳、陳若玲、陳彥宏、許輝文、張政欣、余政國,2011,番婆坑構造之裂縫儲集層研究計畫,經濟部石油基金獎勵石油開發技術研究發展期末報告,共157頁。
  73. 陳文山、陳于高、石瑞銓、胡植慶、詹瑜璋、李建成、洪淑蕙,1992,新竹科學園區活動斷層地震地質學研究,行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告,共93頁。
  74. 陳文山、劉力豪、顏一勤、楊小青、李龍昇、游能悌、張徽正、石瑞銓、陳于高、 李元希、林偉雄、石同生,2003,新城斷層的古地震研究,經濟部中央地質調查所特刊,第十四號,11-23頁。
  75. 陳建良、林啟文、侯進雄,2008,台灣西北部桃竹苗地區地殼變形初步研究,經濟部中央地質調查所特刊,第二十號,223-251頁。
  76. 黃旭燦、楊耿明、吳榮章、丁信修、李長之、梅文威、徐祥宏,2004,斷層活動性觀測與地震潛勢評估調查研究,台灣陸上斷層帶地質構造與地殼變形調查研究(5/5)-台灣西部麓山帶地區地下構造綜合分析,經濟部中央地質調查所報告,共72頁。
  77. 楊貴三、蔡怡真,2003,台灣北部新竹與新城斷層之地形學研究,經濟部中央地質調查所特刊,第十四號,25-35頁。
  78. 楊潔豪、郭泰融,1991,新城斷層之地球物理研究,第3屆台灣地區地球物理研討會論文集,337-352頁。
  79. 盧詩丁、石同生、林啟文、黃文正、陳華玟、陳致言、張徽正,2000,台灣北部新竹地區活動斷層調查,中國地質學會89年年會論文集,308-310頁。
  80. 饒瑞鈞、余致義、洪日豪、胡植慶、李建成、詹瑜璋、許麗文,2006,地震地質調查與活動斷層資料庫建置計畫,活動斷層監測系統計畫(5/5),經濟部中央地質調查所報告,共256頁。
  81. 饒瑞鈞、李元希、胡植慶,2010,地震地質與地變動潛勢分析,地變動監測分析(4/4),經濟部中央地質調查所報告,共414頁。
  82. 英文部分:
  83. 書籍
  84. Shaw, J. H., Connors, C., and Suppe, J. (2005), Seismic Interpretation of Contractional Fault-Related Folds, 156 pp., AAPG, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
  85. Suppe, J. (1985), Principle of Structural Geology, 537 pp., Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
  86. 期刊
  87. Chen, J. S. (1974), Seismic study of the Paoshan structure, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Petrol. Geol. Taiwan(11), 183-195.
  88. Chiu, H. T. (1970), Strcutural features of the area between Hsinchu and Taoyuan, northern Taiwan, Proc. Geol. Soc. China, 13, 63-75.
  89. Chou, C. Y., Suppe, J., Carena, S., and Huang, S. T. (2009), Advances in 3D imaging of the geometry of the Chi-Chi earthquake thrust system in western Taiwan, Eos Trans. AGU, 90(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract T33B-1896.
  90. Huang, S. T., Chen, R. C., and Chi, W. R. (1993), Inversion tectonics and evolution of the northern Taihsi basin, Taiwan, Petrol. Geol. Taiwan(28), 15-46.
  91. Hung, J. H., and Wiltschko, D. V. (1993), Structure and kinematic of arcuate thrust faults in the Miaoli-Cholan area of western Taiwan, Petrol. Geol. Taiwan(28), 59-96.
  92. Namson, J. (1981), Structure of the western foothills belt, Miaoli-Hsinchu area, Taiwan: (I) southern part, Petrol. Geol. Taiwan(18), 31-51.
  93. Namson, J. (1983), Structure of the western foothills belt, Miaoli-Hsinchu area, Taiwan: (II) central part, Petrol. Geol. Taiwan(19), 51-76.
  94. Namson, J. (1984), Structure of the western foothills belt, Miaoli-Hsinchu area, Taiwan: (III) northern part, Petrol. Geol. Taiwan(20), 35-52.
  95. Suppe, J. (1980), A retrodeformable cross section of northern Taiwan, Proc. Geol. Soc. China, 23, 46-55.
  96. Suppe, J. (1981), Mechanics of mountain building and metamorphism in Taiwan, Mem. Geol. Soc. China, 4, 67-89.
  97. Suppe, J. (1984), Seismic interpretation of the compressively reactivated normal fault near Hsinchu, western Taiwan, Petrol. Geol. Taiwan(20), 85-96.
  98. Suppe, J., and Chang, Y. L. (1983), Kink method applied to strcutural interpretation of seismic sections, western Taiwan, Petrol. Geol. Taiwan(19), 29-49.
  99. Suppe, J., and Medwedeff, D. A. (1990), Geometry and kinematics of fault-propagation folding, Eclogae Geol. Helv., 83, 409-454.
  100. Suppe, J., Connors, C. D., and Zhang, Y. (2004), Shear fault-bend folding, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Mem., 82, 303-323.
  101. Tang, C. H., and Hsu, C. H. (1970), Subsurface geology and petroleum deposits in the Hsinchu area, Petrol. Geol. Taiwan(7), 89-101.
  102. Yang, K. M., Ting, H. H., Wu, J. C., and Chi, W. R. (1997), Geology model for complex structures and its implications for hydrocarbon exploration in northwestern Taiwan, Petrol. Geol. Taiwan(31), 1-42.
  103. Yue, L. F., Suppe, J., and Hung, J. H. (2009), Two constrasting kinematic styles of active folding above thrust ramps, western Taiwan, Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Mem., 94, 1-34.
Times Cited
  1. 潘南霖(2015)。應用多時雷達差分干涉技術探討竹苗地區地形變遷。交通大學土木工程系所學位論文。2015。1-82。 
  2. 溫修敏(2018)。臺灣西南海域增積岩體下部斜坡區構造特徵。臺灣大學海洋研究所學位論文。2018。1-75。 
  3. 陳采蔚(2016)。苗栗地區錦水背斜地下構造演育與裂縫發育。臺灣大學地質科學研究所學位論文。2016。1-90。 
  4. 陳冠宇(2014)。台灣北部由造山帶至弧後張裂之陸域及海域構造研究。中央大學地球科學系學位論文。2014。1-199。
  5. 李其芳(2015)。利用GPS觀測資料及塊體模型分析台灣中部及北部地區地殼變形。中央大學地球科學系學位論文。2015。1-116。