Title

利用適地性服務建構行動空氣品質預警系統

Translated Titles

Using Location-Based Services to Build a Mobile Air Quality Warning System

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2014.00345

Authors

簡玉鳳

Key Words

即時路況 ; 空氣汙染 ; 適地性服務 ; 自願性地理資訊 ; 行動裝置APP ; real-time traffic ; air pollution ; location-based services ; volunteer geographic information ; mobile device application

PublicationName

臺灣大學地理環境資源學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2014年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

蔡博文

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

由於地理資訊技術的成熟,加上近年來行動裝置、無線網路的普及化,帶動適地性服務(Location-Based Service; LBS)的廣泛應用,行動裝置使用者已能享有隨時隨地取得所需資訊的便利性。本研究以自願性地理資訊(Volunteered Geographic Information, VGI)的概念,利用適地性服務的應用,結合即時交通資訊,選取臺北市主要路段,針對一氧化碳汙染濃度進行推估,並在Android平台的行動裝置上建立空氣品質預警系統的行動裝置應用程式(Mobile Application,簡稱APP)。 以往國內外針對造成都市空氣汙染的各種因素已有相當多的研究,然而針對即時交通狀況與空氣品質的實際轉換關係,卻鮮有應用案例。本研究推估一氧化碳濃度的方式乃是利用臺北市交通局主要道路的車輛偵測器,獲取即時的交通資料,參考環保署公布之車輛排放係數,並以街谷的概念假設一氧化碳的擴散範圍,推估出各主要道路的一氧化碳汙染濃度,以建立即時交通狀況與一氧化碳濃度的關係。並以本模式推估出的一氧化碳濃度,與鄰近的環保署空氣品質測站監測的即時一氧化碳濃度進行比對,發現模式推估而得的一氧化碳濃度與測站濃度相當接近,顯見模式具有一定的可信度。 在適地性服務的應用上,空氣品質預警系統APP執行後,可依據使用者所在位置,以Google Maps路段分級著色的方式,呈現即時空氣汙染狀況,並提供使用者接近空氣品質現況不良路段時的預警服務,以提醒使用者避開空氣品質不良的路段。

English Abstract

Due to the developing of geographic information technologies, and the popularity of both mobile devices and wireless networks, promote location-based service (LBS) are widely applied. Mobile device users are now able to enjoy the convenience of obtaining necessary information whenever and wherever. In this study, we use the concept of volunteered geographic information (VGI), and the use of location-based service applications, combined with real-time traffic information of main streets in Taipei, to estimate the concentration of carbon monoxide pollution, furthermore, an air quality warming system mobile applications (APP) is established in the Android platform. A considerable number of studies have been made on various urban air pollution factors. However, there are few practical cases refer to the relationship between the actual real-time traffic conditions and the conversion of air quality. In this study, we access real-time traffic information offering by vehicle detectors on main streets constructed by the Department of Transportation, Taipei city government, then compute the concentrate of CO referring to vehicle emission factor published by EPA. At the meantime, the diffusion of carbon monoxide is assumed by the concept of street canyon to estimate a spatial carbon monoxide concentration model. To evaluate the model, we compare the carbon monoxide concentration data provided by the nearest EPA air quality monitoring stations, the result indicate that the estimating carbon monoxide concentration in this study is very close to the real data, showing that model has a certain credibility. Mentioned on the application of location-based services, the air quality warning system APP shows real-time air pollution information with grading colors on Google Maps, remind users to avoid poor air quality sections.

Topic Category 人文學 > 地理及區域研究
理學院 > 地理環境資源學研究所
Reference
  1. 邱瑞仙 [Jui-hsien, Chiu] 2008。桃園地區空氣汙染物濃度相關性及地理分布 [Statistics analysis and spatial homogeneity of air quality in Taoyuan County]。國立中央大學環境工程研究所碩士在職專班碩士論文 [Master, thesis, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan]。
    連結:
  2. 張致瑋 [Chu-Wei, Zhang] 2006。隧道車流量、車種與氣固相汙染物之相關性研究 [Research on relation among flow of traffic, kind of vehicles, gaseous pollutants, and particles]。國立成功大學環境工程學系碩博士班碩士論文 [Master, thesis, Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan]。
    連結:
  3. 張順欽 [Shuenn-Chin, Chang] 2006。臺北市空氣品質近十年來變動型態及其顯現的意義 [The implication of Taipei City air quality variation patterns from the last ten years]。國立中央大學環境工程研究所博士論文 [Ph.D. dissertation, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan]。
    連結:
  4. 梁菁萍 1994。都會區住宅室內外揮發性有機物成份特徵及居民暴露量之研究。高雄醫學大學公共衛生學研究所碩士論文 [Master, thesis, Department of Public Health, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung]。
    連結:
  5. 陳憲偉 [Hsien-Wen, Chen] 2006。以Caline模式模擬臺北市高速公路行駛車輛空氣汙染物之排放 [Modeling of Air Pollutants Released from Highway Traffic in Taipei Using Caline]。臺灣大學環境衛生研究所碩士論文 [Master, thesis, Institute of Environmental Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan]。
    連結:
  6. 黃志弘、蔡豐懋、蘇彥豪 [Chih-Hong Huang, Fong-Mau Tsai, Yen-Hao Su] 2006。建築物量體造形改變對周邊懸浮微粒分佈之影響 [The Effect of Building Structure Forms on the Distribution of Suspended Particles PM10]。建築學報 [Journal of Architecture] 58: 95-112。
    連結:
  7. 黃國峯、林谷合 [Huang, Kuo-Feng, Ku-Ho Lin] 2009。LBS定位之商圈/展場創新服務研究計畫。財團法人資訊工業策進會委託之研究期末報告。
    連結:
  8. Barrefors, G. (1996) Air pollutants in road tunnels, Science of The Total Environment, 189–190: 431-435.
    連結:
  9. Elwood, S. (2008) Volunteered geographic information: Future research directions motivated by critical, participatory, and feminist GIS, GeoJournal, 72(3-4): 173-183.
    連結:
  10. Fischer, P. H., G. Hoek, H. van Reeuwijk, D. J. Briggs, E. Lebret, J. H. van Wijnen, S. Kingham and P. E. Elliott (2000) Traffic-related differences in outdoor and indoor concentrations of particles and volatile organic compounds in Amsterdam, Atmospheric Environment, 34(22): 3713-3722.
    連結:
  11. Gehrig, R. and B. Buchmann (2003) Characterising seasonal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations based on long-term Swiss monitoring data, Atmospheric Environment, 37(19): 2571-2580.
    連結:
  12. Goodchild, M. (2007) Citizens as sensors: The world of volunteered geography, GeoJournal, 69(4): 211-221.
    連結:
  13. Heal, M. R., B. B. B. Booth, J. N. Cape and K. J. Hargreaves (2001) The influence of simplified peroxy radical chemistry on the interpretation of NO2-NO-O3 surface exchange, Atmospheric Environment, 35(9): 1687-1696.
    連結:
  14. Jokar Arsanjani, J., M. Helbich, M. Bakillah, J. Hagenauer and A. Zipf (2013) Toward mapping land-use patterns from volunteered geographic information, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 27(12): 2264-2278.
    連結:
  15. Karakitsios, S. P., V. K. Delis, P. A. Kassomenos and G. A. Pilidis (2007) Contribution to ambient benzene concentrations in the vicinity of petrol stations: Estimation of the associated health risk, Atmospheric Environment, 41(9): 1889-1902.
    連結:
  16. Kenty, K. L., N. D. Poor, K. G. Kronmiller, W. McClenny, C. King, T. Atkeson and S. W. Campbell (2007) Application of CALINE4 to roadside NO/NO2 transformations, Atmospheric Environment, 41(20): 4270-4280.
    連結:
  17. Levitin, J., J. Harkonen, J. Kukkonen and J. Nikmo (2005) Evaluation of the CALINE4 and CAR-FMI models against measurements near a major road, Atmospheric Environment, 39(25): 4439-4452.
    連結:
  18. Li, C. (2006) User preferences, information transactions and location-based services: A study of urban pedestrian wayfinding, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 30(6): 726-740.
    連結:
  19. Qin, Y. and S. C. Kot (1993) Dispersion of vehicular emission in street canyons, Guangzhou City, South China (P.R.C.), Atmospheric Environment. Part B. Urban Atmosphere, 27(3): 283-291.
    連結:
  20. Raaschou-Nielsen, O., J. H. Olsen, O. Hertel, R. Berkowicz, H. Skov, A. M. Hansen and C. Lohse (1996) Exposure of Danish children to traffic exhaust fumes, Science of The Total Environment, 189–190, 51-55.
    連結:
  21. Rogak, S. N., S. I. Green and U. Pott (1998) Use of Tracer Gas for Direct Calibration of Emission-Factor Measurements in a Traffic Tunnel, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 48(6): 545-552.
    連結:
  22. Singer, B. C., A. T. Hodgson, T. Hotchi and J. J. Kim (2004) Passive measurement of nitrogen oxides to assess traffic-related pollutant exposure for the East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study, Atmospheric Environment, 38(3): 393-403.
    連結:
  23. Tan, J.-F., E.-C. Lu and V. Tseng (2013) Preference-oriented mining techniques for location-based store search, Knowledge and Information Systems, 34(1): 147-169.
    連結:
  24. Wilson, M. W. (2012) Location-based services, conspicuous mobility, and the location-aware future, Geoforum, 43(6): 1266-1275.
    連結:
  25. 行政院環境保護署空氣品質及噪音管制處 [Air Quality and Noise Control, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan] 2012。固定汙染源之定義。http://stationary.estc.tw/news.asp?xItem=1800&CtNode=3 (擷取日期:2013.08.15)。
    連結:
  26. 中文文獻
  27. 王聖偉 [Sheng-Wei, Wang] 2000。高雄市中正地下道及過港隧道空氣汙染物採樣與特性分析 [Sampling and Characteristic Study of Air Pollutants in Chungcheng and Cross-Harbor Tunnels in Kaohsiung City]。國立中山大學環境工程研究所碩士論文 [Master, thesis, Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung]。
  28. 仲崇毅 [Chung-Yi, Chung] 2002。交通隧道三維風場及氣態汙染物擴散現象之研究 [Investigations of Three Dimensional Air Flow and Pollutants Dispersion in Traffic Tunnels]。國立中山大學環境工程研究所博士論文 [Ph.D. dissertation, Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung]。
  29. 行政院環境保護署 [Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan] 2002。都會區室內環境中有機性有害空氣汙染物之暴露及健康風險評估 (EPA-90-FA17-03-B038)。
  30. 李昕迪、劉俊宏、鄧東波 [Sin-Di Lee, Chine-Hong Liu, Dong-Po Deng] 2012。自願性地理資訊之生產與管理—以開放街圖為例 [Production and Management of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) - A case study of OpenStreetMap]。發表於2012年台灣地理資訊學會年會暨學術研討會,臺中。
  31. 李智惠 [Ms.Chihuy, lee] 2009。雲嘉南地區空氣品質與氣象因子之分析 [The analysis of air quality and meteorological parameters in the Yun-Chia-Nan area]。國立嘉義大學史地學系研究所碩士論文 [Master, thesis, Department of Applied History, National Chiayi University, Chiayi]。
  32. 李雅婷 2003。台灣中部地區移動汙染源排放量推估與探討。國立中興大學環境工程學系碩士論文 [Master, thesis, Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung]。
  33. 冼卉堉 [Hsien, Hui Yu] 2013。Facebook適地性打卡行為與網路口碑關聯性之研究 ─以宜蘭餅發明館為例 [The Study of LBS Check-in Behavior and eWOM in Facebook ─ As a Case of I-Cake Museum]。中國文化大學資訊傳播學系碩士論文 [Master, thesis, Department of Information and Communications, Chinese Culture University, Taipei]。
  34. 馬一中 [Ma Yee Chung] 2007。空氣汙染物對國小學童氣喘之健康風險評估-子計畫一:以交通汙染暴露模式推估為導向之健康風險評估 。環保署國科會空汙防制科研合作計畫。
  35. 陳昌煚 [Chang-Jeong, Chen] 2005。交通空氣品質監測站汙染特性探討及改善策略研擬-以苗栗公館測站為例 [Characterization and Improvement Strategies of Mobile Source Air Quality Monitoring Station– Using Kungkuan Station of Miaoli as An Example]。國立中山大學環境工程研究所碩士論文 [Master, thesis, Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung]。
  36. 溫啟盛 [Chi-Shemg, Wen] 2004。街谷中移動性汙染源對空氣品質影響分析:以高雄縣鳳山市量測結果為例 [Influence of traffic exhausts on the air quality in a street canyon:A case study of measurement results in Fung-Shan City, Kaohsiung County]。國立中山大學環境工程研究所碩士論文 [Master, thesis, Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung]。
  37. 董思浩 [Ssu-Hao, Tung] 2001。地理資訊系統於台中市移動汙染源現況分析 [Application of GIS in the analysis of Mobile Emissions and Hypothetical Traffic Management Policies in Taichung City]。國立中興大學環境工程學系碩士論文 [Master, thesis, Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung]。
  38. 詹俊南 [Chan, Jun-Nan] 1996。臺灣地區PM10汙染特性分析 [The analysis of PM10 air pollution problem in Taiwan area]。國立台灣大學環境工程研究所碩士論文 [Master, thesis, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei]。
  39. 蔡孟裕 [Meng, Y. U. Tsai] 2005。街谷中三維尺度空氣汙染物擴散現象之研究 [Measurements and Three-Dimensional Modeling of Air Pollutant Dispersion in an Urban Street Canyon]。國立中山大學環境工程研究所博士論文 [Ph.D. dissertation, Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung]。
  40. 蔡博文 [Tsai Bor-Wen] 2011。NGIS的下一步:公眾參與。國土資訊系統通訊。80: 2-9。
  41. 英文文獻
  42. Darwin, I. (2012) Android Cookbook. California: O'Reilly.
  43. Lane, N. D., E. Miluzzo, L. Hong, D. Peebles, T. Choudhury and A. T. Campbell (2010) A survey of mobile phone sensing, Communications Magazine, IEEE, 48(9): 140-150.
  44. Schiller, J. and A. Voisard. 2004. Location-based services. Elsevier.
  45. 網頁資料
  46. Android.com 2013. Android Developer Dashboards. http://developer.android.com/about/dashboards/index.html (last accessed 15 August 2013).
  47. Open handset alliance 2013. What would it take to build a better mobile phone?. http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/ (last accessed 15 Aguest 2013).
  48. OpenStreetMap台灣 [OpenStreetMap Taiwan] 2013。Wheelmap – 尋找輪椅無障礙空間。http://wheelmap.org/zh_TW/map (擷取日期:2013.12.3)。
  49. Wikipedia-Android 2013. Android. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_(operating_system) (last accessed 15 August 2013).
  50. 行政院環境保護署 [Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan] 2011。排放清冊介紹。http://ivy2.epa.gov.tw/air-ei/new_main1.htm (擷取日期:2013.08.15)。
  51. 行政院環境保護署 [Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan] 2011。排放量推估方法。http://ivy2.epa.gov.tw/air-ei/new_main1-2.htm (擷取日期:2013.08.15)。
  52. 行政院環境保護署 [Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan] 2013。空氣品質監測網 [Air Quality Monitoring Network]。http://taqm.epa.gov.tw/taqm/zh-tw/PsiMap.aspx (擷取日期:2013.12.15)。
  53. 行政院環境保護署空氣品質監測網 [Air Quality Monitoring Network, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan] 2013。空氣汙染指標 [The definition of air pollution indicators]。http://air.epa.gov.tw/Public/quality.aspx (擷取日期:2013.08.15)。
  54. 行政院環境保護署統計室 [Statistics Office, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan] 2013。重要環保統計通報(102.06)。http://www.epa.gov.tw/FileDownload/FileHandler.ashx?FLID=22016 (擷取日期:2013.08.15)。
  55. 財團法人中華民國消費者文教基金會 [Consumers' Foundation, Chinese Taipei] 2013。台灣救命版圖 緊急建置中。http://www.consumers.org.tw/unit412.aspx?id=1681 (擷取日期:2013.08.15)。
  56. 臺北市交通管制工程處工程隊 [Taipei City Traffic Engineering Office] 2013。臺北市區現有各項交通改善設施數量(修正表)中華民國102年7月底。http://www.bote.taipei.gov.tw/GIPDSD/xslGip/xslExport/117031/logodownload/102.07traffic.pdf (擷取日期:2013.08.15)
  57. 臺北市政府主計處 [Department of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Taipei City Government] 2013。市政統計週報第725號。http://www.dbas.taipei.gov.tw/public/Attachment/37217591955.pdf (擷取日期:2013.08.15)
  58. 臺北市政府交通局 [Department of Transportation, Taipei City Government] 2013。智慧型運輸系統區。http://www.taipei.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=8399464&CtNode=51351&mp=117001 (擷取日期:2013.08.15)
Times Cited
  1. 陳奎元(2016)。應用時空分析方法建立動態交通事故預警系統之研究。臺灣大學地理環境資源學研究所學位論文。2016。1-107。