Title

2008年至2012年間貝里斯貸款機構效率之衡量: 農業金融之策略評估

Translated Titles

Measuring the Efficiency of Lending Institutions in Belize 2008-2012: A Strategic Assessment of Agricultural Finance

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2014.00442

Authors

葛邁斯

Key Words

農業信貸 ; 金融(銀行)效率 ; 農業金融 ; 伯利茲 ; Agricultural credit ; Financial (Banking) Efficiency ; Agricultural Finance ; Belize

PublicationName

臺灣大學農業經濟學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2014年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

徐世勳 教授

Content Language

英文

English Abstract

In today’s economy and society, efficiency in the financial sector (lending sector) and performance analysis in agricultural financing industry attract more and more attention. The main purpose of the study is to demonstrate if lending institutions in Belize are performing efficiently towards agricultural financing growth in collaboration with different stakeholders and for their own capacity development. This document is divided into two major sections that play a vital role in Belize’s economy. The first section analyzes technical efficiency of lending institution (commercial banks, credit union and other financial institution) in Belize from 2008 to 2012 by using Data Envelope Analysis (DEA). The technical efficiency was analyzed sequentially with a certain window width using panel data for 10 lending institutions. The second section was a strategic assessment of agricultural finance in Belize. To date there has been too much reliance on what the outer world would offer and too little stock-taking of what Belize could create or generate with her own resources. Such that there is a need to increase the living standards of farmers through financing in order to stabilize and increase Belize economic growth. This can only be achieved by identifying the major problems in agriculture financing to provide suggestions for the improvement of an effective financing framework and policy implications to be implemented. Presently, most of the programs and policies are not achieving the objectives for which they were designed. This assessment used qualitative and quantitative data which revealed that most farmers have no access to any kind of financial service (payments, safekeeping, credit and insurance), which hampers the efficiency and security of their operations. Many farmers struggle to pay their seasonal harvest inputs, and investing in agricultural technology and expansion is even more difficult, even though there is great potential for agriculture expansion in Belize. The study draws on the experiences gained and vast literature from lending institution efficiency and the use of Taiwan agricultural finance framework special features. The study emphasizes on the importance of financing efficiency and agricultural financing. This role includes the provision of food, employment, raw materials for local industries and foreign exchange earnings for the development of the nation, therefore, the need for this study. The analysis concludes that agricultural production and financing will remain an issue of interest in an effort to raise agricultural production and productivity, as the implementation of macroeconomic policies under the economic deregulation policy will continue to affect the whole economy in general and the agricultural sector in particular. The study’s recommendations focused on both institutional aspects (the financial sector) and general policy implication recommendations (financial products, risk-mitigation mechanisms).

Topic Category 生物資源暨農學院 > 農業經濟學研究所
生物農學 > 農業
Reference
  1. Asmild, M., J. C. Paradi, V. Aggarwall, and C. Schaffnit,. (2004). Combining DEA window analysis with the malmquist index approach in a study of the Canadian banking industry, Journal of Productivity Analysis. 21: 67-89.
    連結:
  2. Banker, R.D., Charnes, A., Cooper, W.W., Models for estimating technical and scale efficiencies, Management Science, Vol. 30, 1984, pp. 1078-1092.
    連結:
  3. Berger, A. N. and Humphrey, D.B. (1997). Efficiency of financial institutions: International survey and direction of future research. European journal of operations research 98, pp. 172-212.
    連結:
  4. Charnes, A., C. T. Clark, W. W. Cooper, and B. Golany (1985). A development study of data envelopment analysis in measuring the efficiency of maintenance units in the U. S. air force, Annals of Operations Research.
    連結:
  5. Coelli, T.J. (1992). A Guide to FRONTIER Version 4.1: A computer program for stochastic frontier production and cost functions estimation, mimeo, department of econometrics. University of New England, Armidale.
    連結:
  6. Coelli, T.J.(1997). A multi-Stage methodology for the solution of oriented DEA models, mimeo, centre for efficiency and productivity analysis. University of New England, Armidale.
    連結:
  7. Demsetz, H. (1973). Industry structure, market rivalry and public policy. Journal of Law and Economics, Vol.16, N°.1
    連結:
  8. Ellinger, Paul N. (1994) Potential gains from efficiency analysis of agricultural banks. American Journal of Agricultural Economics.
    連結:
  9. Farrell, M. J. (1957). The Measurement of productivity efficiency. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, CXX, Part 3, pp. 253-290
    連結:
  10. FAO. (2005). International Conference on Rural Finance Research, Moving results into policies and practice. Rome, 19-21 March, 2007, FAO, FIDA, Ford Foundation.
    連結:
  11. International Monetary Fund (IMF). (2006). Antigua and Barbuda, Staff Report for the 2005 Article IV Consultation, April 2006.
    連結:
  12. Kasap Y. (2008). Development of efficiency and productivity of coal mining in Turkey: Data envelopment analysis. PhD thesis, Eskisehir, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, 2008. Turkish.
    連結:
  13. Marvin Duncan, Jerome M. Stam. (1998). Financing agriculture into the twenty-first century.Westview press publishing.
    連結:
  14. Miller SM and AG Noulas. (1996). The technical efficiency of large banks production. Journal of Banking and Finance.
    連結:
  15. Nunamaker TR (1985). Using data envelopment analysis to measure the efficiency of non-profit organizations: A critical evaluation. Managerial and Decision Economics 6(1): 50-58.
    連結:
  16. Padmanabha K.P. (1988). Rural credit: Lessons for rural bankers and policy makers, ITDG Publishing.
    連結:
  17. Seiford, L.M. (1997). Theory of cost and production functions. Princeton, Princeton University Press.
    連結:
  18. Trivelli, C and H Venero (2007). Banca de desarrollo para el agro: experiencias encurso en Am’erica Latina, Lima (Per’u): Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.
    連結:
  19. Saarbrucken, Trang Thi My Duyen. (2011). Agricultural credit in Vietnam: the effect of agricultural credit on farmers' socio-economic condition in Vietnam: case studies of Tri Ton District. An Giang Province: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
  20. Coelli, Tim., Rao, Prasada D.S., Battese, George E. (1998). An introduction to efficiency and productivity analysis.Boston: Kluwer Academic Publisher.
  21. Barnett & Company. (2011). Belize Horizon 2030. Report presented to GOB. Belmopan City: Belize C.A.
  22. Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI). (2009). Belize country highlights 2008. Belmopan City, Belize. Retrieved from http://www.cardi.org/wp-content/files/Highlights/Belize_highlights_2008.pdf.
  23. Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI). (2010). Belize country highlights 2009. Belmopan City, Belize. Retrieved from http://www.cardi.org/wpcontent/files/Highlights/Final%20BEL%20Country%20Highlights%20Report%202009.pdf.
  24. Central Bank of Belize. (2009). Annual Report 2009. Retrieved from http://www.centralbank.org.bz/docs/rsh_4.2.4_annual-reports/central-bank-annual report-2009---full-document.pdf.
  25. Chalmers and Geoffrey. (2005). A fresh look at rural and agricultural finance , RAFI Note #1, an AMAP/BASIS publication, USAID’s rural and agricultural finance initiative, chemonics, ACDI/VOCA. Ohio State University and DAI.
  26. Charitonenko, Stephanie; Heron, Lena; Chalmers, Geoffrey; Lennon, Barry; Miller, Mary. (2005). Value chain finance , RAFI Note #2, an AMAP/BASIS publication, USAID’s rural and agricultural finance initiative, chemonics, ACDI/VOCA. Ohio State University and DAI.
  27. Charnes, A., Cooper, W.W., Rhodes, E. (1978). Measuring efficiency of decision making units. European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 1, 1978, pp. 429-444.
  28. Government of Belize and Central Bank of Belize. (2012). Central Bank of Belize, Domestic Banks & Financial Institution Act (No.11 of 2012 BZD)
  29. Fare, R., S. Grosskopf, and C.A.K Lovell. (1994). Production frontiers. Cambridge University Press
  30. Government of Belize. (2010). Belize medium term development strategy 2010 – 2013: building resilience against Social, economic and physical vulnerabilities. MED, Belmopan City.
  31. Government of Belize, Central Bank of Belize. (2003). Central Bank of Belize, Credit Unions Act Revised Edition 2003 (BZE)
  32. Halcrow. (2010). 2009 Country Poverty Assessment: Volume 1. National Human Development Advisory Committee (NHDAC), MED. Belmopan City.
  33. Hausmann and Klinger, Growth Diagnostic: Belize, IDB, December 2007, pages 6-7 and IMF, Belize: Staff Report for the 2003 Article IV Consultation, April 2004.
  34. Herman, J. Loether and McTavish, Donald G. (1976). Descriptive and inferential statistics: an introduction : a selectively combined edition of Descriptive statistics for sociologists and Inferential statistics for sociologists. Allyn and Bacon Publishing
  35. Jock, R Anderson and Hann, C de. (1992). Document JAC 88-35 of the Joint Audit Committee. (1988). Approach Paper: A Review of Bank Lending for Agricultural credit (1951-1987)" dated October 5, 1988, p. 3, para. 6. The study covered the period before 1976.World Bank Publishing.
  36. Jock, R Anderson and Hann, C de. (1992). Document JAC 88-35 of the Joint Audit Committee, October 5, 1988. World Bank Publishing.
  37. Koopman, T.C. (1951).An Analysis of production as an efficient combination efficiency of activities. In Koopman, T.C ed. Activity Analysis of Production and allocation Cowles Commission for Research in Economics, Wiley.
  38. Kuntchev, Ramalho, Rodriguez-Mezo, and Yang. (2012).What have we learned from the Enterprise Surveys regarding access to finance and SMEs? World Bank.
  39. Mstry of Finance (2003). The national food & agriculture policy (2002-2020): “No farmer = No food”. Government of Belize. Retrieved from http://ctrc.sice.oas.org/trc/articles/belize/poldoc1.pdf.
  40. Martin, D. & Manzano, O. (2010). Towards a sustainable and efficient state the development agenda of Belize Inter-American Development Bank. Managua, Nicaragua
  41. Meerman, J., J. McGill and M. Cayetano. (2011). Belize national land use policy for land resource development. Consultancy report prepared for Ministry of MNREI and UNDP, Belmopan.
  42. Mendoza, P & NHDAC, 2009. National poverty elimination strategy and action plan 2009-2013. Ministry of Econ Development, Commerce, Industry & Consumer Protection. Belmopan City.
  43. Michael V. Angrosino.(2010). How do they know that? : the process of social research / Michael V. Angrosino. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 2010.
  44. Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries (MAF). (2003).The national food & agriculture policy (2002-2020), “No Farmer = No Food. Government of Belize. Retrieved from http://ctrc.sice.oas.org/trc/articles/belize/poldoc1.pdf.
  45. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF). (2008). Annual report 2008. Belize C.A. Retrieved from http://www.agriculture.gov.bz/PDF/Annual%20Report%202008.pdf.
  46. National Human Development Advisory Committee (NHDAC). (2007). National poverty elimination action plan NPEAP 2007-2011. Ministry of National Development, Investment & Culture. Belize C.A. Retrieved from http://www.belize.gov.bz/public/Data/9112715241671.pdf.
  47. National Human Development Advisory Committee (NHDAC). (2010). Country poverty assessment volume 1. Main Report. Ministry of Economic Development, Commerce and Industry, and Consumer Protection, Belize C.A.
  48. Servet, Jean-Michel, Morvant-Roux, Solene. ( 2007). De l’exclusion financiere a l’inclusion par la microfinance, Horizons Bancaires. Forthcoming, December 2007.
  49. Statistical Insitute of Belize. (2009) . Annual abstract of statistics 2008. Belmopan City, Belize C.A.
  50. Strategic Policy Unit. (1997).The Belizean economy, 1985-1996 evidence of crowd out effects, CBB, July 1997. Blmopan, Belize C.A.
  51. United Nations Development Programme. (2006). Country program action plan for the period of 2007-2011 between the government of Belize and United Nations Development Program Belize. Retrieved from http://www.undp.org.bz/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/Country-Program-Action-Plan-Belize-2007-2011-w-Cover.pdf.
  52. United Nations Development Programme. (2007). United Nations development assistance framework, Belize 2007 – 2011. Retrieved from http://www.undp.org.bz/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/UNDAF-BELIZE-2007-2011.pdf.
  53. United Nation Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR). (2009). Terminology on disaster risk reduction. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), Geneva, Switzerland.