Title

四篇關於個人選擇與總體決策之論文——健康風險認知與菸酒消費及二氧化碳減量與經濟發展

Translated Titles

Four Essays on Individual Choice and Aggregate Decision: Perception of Health Risk and Consumption of Alcohol and Cigarette and Reduction of Carbon Dioxide and Economic Development

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2009.00522

Authors

劉哲良

Key Words

第一篇:解構式計畫行為理論 ; 正向風險認知 ; 負向風險認知 ; 二階段估計法 ; 受限分量迴歸 ; 第二篇:風險感受行為理論 ; 健康風險認知 ; 主觀感受 ; 二階段估計法 ; 受限分量迴歸 ; 第三篇:能源使用效率 ; 二氧化碳排放控制效率 ; 經濟發展 ; 環境顧志耐曲線 ; 資料包絡法 ; 第四篇:方向性距離函數 ; 平等主義 ; 國家主權 ; 償付能力 ; 污染者付費 ; 溫室氣體發展權利架構 ; essay1: Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior ; Positive Risk Perception ; Negative Risk Perception ; Two-stage Regression Approach ; Censored Quantile Regression ; essay2: Risk as Feelings Theory ; Health Risk Perception ; Subjective Feeling ; Two-Stage Regression Approach ; Censored Quantile Regression ; essay3: Energy Use Efficiency ; Energy Emission Control Efficiency ; Economic Development ; Environmental Kuznets Curve ; Data Development Analysis ; essay4: directional distance function ; egalitarian ; sovereignty ; ability to pay ; polluter pay ; Greenhouse Development Rights framework

PublicationName

臺灣大學農業經濟學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2009年

Academic Degree Category

博士

Advisor

吳珮瑛

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

第一篇:本文以解構式計畫行為理論做為概念架構,在資料具備受限特質之前提下,以受限分量迴歸法來進行正負向風險認知對不同飲酒程度消費者之酒精消費量決策分析。根據分析結果顯示,結合貝氏風險學習架構的解構式計劃行為理論解釋因子對酒精消費量確實有顯著的決策解釋效果,其中,又以行為態度面向中的正負向風險認知變數影響效果最為顯著。又對於輕度酒精消費區間之消費者,其所擁有的正向與負向風險認知的酒精消費彈性,皆顯著大於中度與重度酒精消費區間之消費者。故相關決策單位欲以資訊教育的方式來勸導民眾避免過度酒精消費帶來的健康傷害時,對於輕度酒精消費量區間的消費者而言,會有最大的效果。反之,對於屬於中度偏向重度、以及重度飲酒區間的消費者來說,資訊管道對酒精消費量的影響力遠不及其在輕度飲酒區間裡的表現,其酒精消費決策更可能是受到酒癮影響之結果。 第二篇:本文以風險感受行為理論做為概念架構,在資料具備受限特質之前提下,以受限分量迴歸法來進行健康風險認知與個人快樂程度對不同抽菸程度消費者之抽菸量決策分析。根據分析結果顯示,風險感受行為理論解釋因子對每日抽菸量確實有顯著的決策解釋效果,顯示對於健康風險財貨之分析,需將同時將個人理性與感性層面的要素納入,方能得到完整的決策分析結果。又根據實證結果,我們發現抽菸決策中的理性層面要素與感性層面要素對抽菸決策行為的影響方向互為一增一減拮抗關係,且由於理性與感性力量之間存在互動關係,此將令單一因子對每日抽菸量的影響效果有所改變。在行為意涵上,當個人處於較快樂的情感下,將容易強化負面風險認知資訊的吸收能力,此即感性要素力量的提升,同時強化了理性要素於決策之中的影響力;反之,亦然。 第三篇:本研究檢視包含所有京都議定書簽署國在內共57個國家,橫跨1990到2005年的跨國、跨年之能源使用效率與二氧化碳排放控制的全面技術效率,以及各自拆解成的純技術效率與規模效率表現,並探索能源使用效率、二氧化碳排放控制效率及此二效率的子效率與經濟發展的關係。實證結果顯示,對於高度已開發國家而言,藉由改善相關政策管理品質以提升能源使用與二氧化碳排放控制的純技術效率,以及透過調整能源生產結構以改善二氧化碳排放控制的規模效率將是潛在的追求方向。而強化對於能源使用的純技術效率的提升、保持二氧化碳排放控制純技術效率的上升趨勢,以及兼顧排放規模的控制以提升規模效率,將是開發中國家相關政策所應追求的方向。 第四篇:本文的研究目的首先在於建構出涵蓋公平性原則的一般化跨國初始排放權分配及交易模式,並採用57個國家、橫跨1990到2005年的長期追蹤資料,分別以「平等主義」、「國家主權」、「償付能力」、「污染者付費」與「溫室氣體發展權利架構」之公平準則,進行跨國參與排放權交易前後的總減量成本模擬分析。同時將國家依發展程度,模擬分析不同發展群組國家在不同公平性原則下,比較有無參與排放權交易之總減量成本的差異,依此而決定在成本有效性下之公平準則。最後,同樣的模擬過程亦將分析美國、中國與印度,在成本有效性下之公平準則。結果顯示,站在不同發展程度國家的立場而言,發展程度最高的國家,「國家主權分配模式」是這一群國家得以兼顧成本有效性與公平的最佳選擇;「污染者付費分配模式」為中高與中低發展程度國家的最佳選擇;而配合完全以能力為權數的「GDR分配模式」則為低發展國家群組的最佳選擇。又站在世界整體的立場而言,「污染者付費模式」一致的呈現出排放權交易制度,將帶給世界整體各發展程度的國家最多的成本節省。依此,在成本有效性下,唯有中高與中低發展群組國家所決定的「污染者付費分配模式」公平準則,是與站在世界整體的立場一致。而以相同方式觀察美國、中國與印度,在世界整體觀點下所欲採用的「污染者付費分配模式」,與站在此三國各別立場是完全不一致的,因而要促使此三國參與排放交易機制,相對而言是困難的。

English Abstract

Essay1: This paper uses the conceptual framework of decomposed theory of planned behavior to analyze a set of censored data. The censored quantile regression is conducted for the diverse risk perceptions of alcohol consumption decision, i. e. a positive risk perception and a negative risk perception. The results show that all explanatory variables do have impacts on the decision of alcohol consumption under the framework of Bayesian learning and decomposed theory of planned behavior. Among these, the risk perception variables with either positive risk or negative risk perception have the most significant impacts. The alcohol consumption elasticities of risk perception for either positive or negative risk perception under the light alcohol consumption are all higher than those under the median and heavy levels of alcohol consumption. As such, group with light alcohol consumption is more effective than other two groups if the related agents intend to educate general public about the impact of alcohol consumption on the health through information delivery. Groups with median and heavy alcohol consumption are mostly affected by the addiction to the consumption of alcohol. Essay2: This paper uses the risk as feelings theory to analyze a set of censored data. The censored quantile regression is conducted for the diverse health risk perception and happiness of smoking decision. The results show that all explanatory variables do have significant impacts on the smoking decision under the framework of risk as feelings theory. The risk perception variable has negative impact on smoking quantities. On the contrary, the happiness portrays the positive impact on smoking quantities. Furthermore, the marginal effect of the risk perception and happiness will change cause of the interrelationship between them. As a result, the effect of risk perception variable will be enhanced with increasing in individual happiness and vice versa. Essay3: This study decomposes the global technology efficiency in energy use and CO2 emission control into their pure technology efficiency and scale efficiency respectively. The interrelationship among global technology efficiency, pure technology efficiency, and economic development both for energy use and CO2 emission control can thus be identified. Fifty-seven countries including all the committed countries in Kyoto Protocol during 1990-2005 are included in the analysis. The results show that the increasing of global technology efficiency in CO2 emission control has to be accompanied by the sacrifice of the global technology efficiency in energy use at the early stage of economic development. However, further development of economy will take both of the global technology efficiency in energy use and CO2 emission control toward inefficient status. If use of energy is inescapable for the growth of economy so is the emission of greenhouse gases from the use of energy then for developed countries enhancing the pure technology efficiency in energy use and scale efficiency in CO2 emission control are important tasks to pursue. On the contrary, developing countries have to engage in the improvement of the pure technology efficiency in CO2 emission and scale efficiency in energy use. Essay4: The purposes of this study are firstly to construct an operational equitable initial rights allocation model. Simulations and computations are conducted for a set of panel data with 57 countries in 1990-2005 under criteria of egalitarian, sovereignty, ability to pay, polluter pay, and various scenarios of Greenhouse Development Rights framework. Then, it is to determine the equity principle under cost effectiveness for countries with different levels of economic development. The same analytic process is applied to China, India, and the United States. The results show that the criteria of sovereignty, polluter pay, and GDR framework with full capacity weight create the cost effectiveness for the high-income, the upper middle-income, the low middle-income, and the low-income group of countries, respectively. The attractiveness for the groups of upper middle-income and low middle-income countries to join the emission reduction array are much easier than the other countries since the lowest total abatement cost for those groups with emission trading will occur at the same equity criterion as those without emission trading scheme. As with China, India, and the United States, the lowest cost occurs at full capacity weight of GDR framework, egalitarian, and sovereignty respectively. It is a challenge to bring those three countries into the emission trading array due to such equity discrepancy between individual country and the world as a whole.

Topic Category 生物資源暨農學院 > 農業經濟學研究所
生物農學 > 農業
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Times Cited
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