Title

權威與實踐:以台灣北部道士為例

Translated Titles

The Way and Its Powers: Taoist Practice and Religious Authority in Northern Taiwan

DOI

10.6342/NTU201703706

Authors

孟逸夫

Key Words

道士 ; 宗教權威 ; 儀式效力 ; 儀式正確性 ; 台灣 ; Taoist priests ; religious authority ; ritual efficacy ; orthopraxy ; Taiwan

PublicationName

臺灣大學人類學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2017年

Academic Degree Category

博士

Advisor

葉春榮

Content Language

英文

Chinese Abstract

本論文以台灣北部道士為例,探討儀式專家的權威(authority)問題。過去儀式理論討論儀式專家權威的來源有兩個:儀式正確性(orthopraxy)以及效力(efficacy)。另外,討論權威的學者指出權威的結構是一個建立在場域(field)位置以及與其他專家的關係的一種社會過程。本論文奠基於筆者自2013年至2016年間,在北部以正一自居道士的活動中所收集的田野資料來探討儀式專家的權威結構。 本論文包含第一章導論與最後一章結論,共有11個章節。在第二、三章談道士活動背後的宗教背景以及其使用的兩種儀式系統—道與法。道士很清楚分辨兩系統的差異,也承認兩系統之間有互補的關係。第四章討論北部道士活動的歷史,說明田野期間的道教實踐會受特定時空及地點影響。第五章介紹道士受訓練並加入「道士圈」的方式。第六、七章用醮、登台拜表的例子討論儀式正確性與權威的關係。第八、九章以北部道士主要療癒法事——大補運——為例討論儀式的效力與權威的關係。第十章討論各種法事的不同安排方式及其與道士在場域的位置的關係。 結論裡面提出在建立權威時,雖然正確性及效力都扮演重要的角色;但道士個人與其他道士之間的關係以及其進入道士圈的方式,則在獲得權力的社會過程中位居關鍵的位。

English Abstract

One way to answer the question why people put their faith in ritual specialists is through the notion of authority. Scholars of ritual have proposed two ways in which ritual authority can be constructed: 1) through knowledge of the correct way to perform rites; and 2) through the performance of rites that produce certain desired effects. In this view, authority is thus either based on orthopraxy or efficacy. Other scholars have pointed out that the construction of authority is a social process in which the position in a so-called ‘field’ and the relations with other specialists should also be taken into consideration. In this dissertation, I discuss the construction of religious authority among Taoist priests in northern Taiwan who identify as part of the Cheng-it (Zhengyi) tradition, focusing on one aspect of their work—the performance of major ceremonies involving multiple priests. Data was collected through ethnographic fieldwork carried out between 2013 and 2016. In addition to the introduction (chapter 1) and conclusion (chapter 11), this dissertation consists of 9 chapters. In chapters 2 and 3, I describe the religious context in which the priests were active and the ritual systems that the priests would employ, arguing that even if priests would make clear distinctions between the tō and hoat rites, both traditions would play a complementary role in the practice of the priests. In chapter 4, I give a brief historical overview of Taoist practice in northern Taiwan, arguing that practice as it existed by the time I was doing fieldwork was the result of specific local and historical factors. Chapter 5 looks at the different ways that priests were trained and gained access to the ‘field of priests’. Chapters 6 and 7 discuss the importance of orthopraxy, its implication for Taoist practice and the relation between orthopraxy and authority, using the example of the jiao and a newly introduced rite called tng tai pai pio (dengtai baibiao) or Ascending the platform to present a memorial. Chapters 8 and 9 discuss the toa-po͘-un, the major healing rite of the northern priests and the connection between efficacy and authority. In chapter 10, I discuss the different ways in which the ceremonies of the priests were organized. In the conclusion, I argue that while efficacy and orthopraxy both played a role in the establishment of authority, a priest’s authority could not be reduced to either of them. Rather, the construction of authority was a social process in which relations with other priests and the way a priest entered the field played a key role.

Topic Category 人文學 > 人類學及族群研究
文學院 > 人類學研究所
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