Title

廠商海外生產行為及其對國內勞動僱用之影響 —台灣製造業之實證研究

Translated Titles

Overseas Production and Effects on Employment ∼The Evidence from Taiwan Manufacturing Industry

DOI

10.6342/NTU.2012.02328

Authors

洪毓霞

Key Words

海外生產 ; 對外直接投資 ; 全球布局 ; 勞動僱用 ; 失業率 ; 產業空洞化 ; Overseas production ; Foreign direct investment(FDI) ; Global logistics ; Employment ; Unemployment rate ; Deindustrialize

PublicationName

臺灣大學經濟學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2012年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

林惠玲

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

21世紀以來,全球化浪潮席捲全球經濟,掀起一波全球布局、國際分工的經營模式革新,台灣因屬淺碟型經濟,產業成長與全球經濟密不可分,自然無法在這波浪潮中缺席,尤其近年來政府逐步開放對中國大陸投資,並積極洽簽ECFA,均加速國內廠商赴海外投資設廠的腳步,惟在此同時,國內失業率居高不下,因此引發海外生產衝擊國內就業的諸多疑慮,緣此,本文首次利用最近二次(2001、2006)工商普查製造業廠商pooling data進行研究,以釐清海外生產對國內勞動僱用之影響,相關研究結論摘述如下: 一、影響廠商海外生產的動機:廠商赴海外生產主要受到營業規模、經營績效、專屬優勢的正向影響,以及勞動生產力的負向影響;其中,高科技產業從事海外生產主要基於外銷、專屬優勢等擴張性動機,傳統產業則多考量生產要素取得等防禦性因素。 二、海外生產對國內勞動僱用影響:整體而言,廠商進行海外生產將減少國內總員工僱用,對國內就業環境產生不利影響;而若進一步探討其對勞動結構的影響,海外生產一方面減少國內非技術性員工僱用,一方面則增加技術員工僱用。 三、赴中國大陸生產對國內勞動僱用影響:赴中國大陸生產的廠商,其國內勞動僱用的變化大致與全體海外生產廠商一致;其中,高科技產業以中國大陸為主要生產地者,相較於全體有海外生產之高科技產業,其總員工及非技術員工減少幅度較小,技術員工增加幅度則較大。至於傳統產業其對於國內總員工僱用人數影響則較為不利。

English Abstract

Under the circumstance of economic globalization, the operation of an enterprise has been innovated toward an atmosphere of globalization on the allocation of resources and internationalization on collaboration. In the situation of shallow economy, and the growth of industries is closed tied to the global economy, Taiwan can never be absent from the aforesaid globalization. In particular, while the government gradually removes the restriction of investment to Mainland China and aggressively conducts the conclusion of ECFA with Mainland China, the domestic enterprises also accelerate their procedures of conducting foreign investments. In the meantime, however, the domestic unemployment rate has also remained in a high level. Therefore, the concerns whether the overseas production would impact the domestic employment occur. On the bases of the abovementioned background, the paper pioneers in making use of the latest pooling data of 2001 and 2006 to conduct the research in order to clarify the impact of overseas production on the domestic employment. The conclusion of the research is abstracted as follows, 1.The motivations of overseas production: the pro-reasons include business scope, operation performance, and ownership advantage; the con-reason includes the labor productivity. The high-tech industries conduct overseas production based on the motivation of expansion such as export and ownership adventure; the traditional industries conduct overseas production based on the motivation of defensive concern. 2.The impact of overseas production on domestic employment: in general, the conduction of overseas production results in the reduction of demand on domestic employment therefore disadvantages the domestic employment environment. The further research in the structure of labor shows that the overseas production, on the one hand, reduces the non-technical domestic employment, and, on the other hand increases employment of technical workers. 3.The impact of conducting production in Mainland China on domestic employment: generally, the variation of domestic employment of enterprises which conduct production in Mainland China is consist to the variation of domestic employment of enterprises which conduct overseas production. Moreover, with regard to high-tech industries, compare with the enterprises which conduct overseas production, enterprises which conduct their production mainly in Mainland China have narrower overall workwes and non-technical workers reduction and larger technical workers expansion. With regard to traditional industries, the shift of the base of manufactures from Taiwan to Mainland China has disadvantaged the domestic employment of non-technical workers.

Topic Category 社會科學院 > 經濟學研究所
社會科學 > 經濟學
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