The Study of Yunlin Farmers’ Participation on Agricultural Structural Improvement Policies
農業調整政策 ； 老農 ； 耕地規模 ； 小地主大佃農 ； Agricultural structural adjustment policy ； aging farmers ； small land-owners ； big land-tenants
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長期以來，雲林縣農業面臨耕作面積規模小，農民高齡化兩個主要問題，造成農產品生產成本高，競爭力低。要解決這些問題，政府當局採取許多農業經營調整措施包括小地主大佃農，休耕地活化，漂鳥計劃，園丁計劃，農民學院以及農場見習等措施。儘管政府推出種種政策與措施，農民對農業結構調整政策參與的意願與看法才是影響政策執行成敗的重要因素。本研究主要目的就是要調查雲林縣農民參加農業結構調整政策的意願與看法。本研究以田野調查方式取得初級資料，並利用數量方法做分析。 雲林縣農業就業人口嚴重高齡化，而且是加速高齡化。雲林縣農民的教育程度偏低，無意願務農的後繼者釋出農地的意願不高，擁有農地所有權的觀念根深蒂固。雲林縣農民目前參加小地主大佃農政策者只占極少數，不過未來參加小地主大佃農之意願卻很高。雲林縣農民租地耕作的需求大，但要租到大面積耕地卻不容易。農地的租金尚屬低廉，農地的位置尚屬集中。農民認為欲維持全家生計所需之經營規模遠大於現狀。純粹社會福利的雲林縣老農津貼每年高達53億元(2013)。 雲林縣農民得知農業結構調整政策的來源，電視是最佳媒體管道。絕大多數農民沒有參與2013年休耕地活化宣導會。雲林縣農民絕大多數贊成休耕地活化措施並贊成對參加者的資格做限定。 雲林縣有很好機會發展農業產銷、經營與外銷專區。農民是否同意政府針對等值或等面積農地交換提供獎勵的看法，正反意見不相上下。雲林縣農民同意在離農退休津貼上就面積，家庭收入與年齡設有上限。同意只有水田種植稻作才能參加保價收購，只有配合適地適種規劃者才能領取補貼。
For a long time, small farm size and aging farmers are the two major problems faced by Yun-Lin’s agricultural sector, which in turns result in higher production cost and lower competiveness of the agricultural industries. To solve the problems, several policy measures have been taken by the authority including “Small land-owners, big land-tenants”, “Activation of fallow land”, “Stray birds project”, “Gardener project”, “The farmers academy”, as well as “Farm internship.” Although policy mechanisms have been provided, it is the farmers’ willingness of participation which would greatly influence the implementation of the policies. The purpose of this research is to investigate the farmers’ opinions and willingness to participate in the agricultural structural policy in Yun-Lin County. A survey is conducted to generate the initial data and qualitative methods are applied in this research. Our findings suggest that the average age of all the farmers in Yun-Lin is getting older and it is accelerating year by year. Besides, Yun-Lin farmers’ education level is low. What’s worse, those who inherit the farms but have no intention to work on them are not willing to release the land. And the traditional concept of preserving land for the future generation is unbreakable. Only very few Yun-Lin farmers have participated in the Small land-owners, big land-tenants program. However, many of them show high interest in joining it in the future. There is an increasing demand to rent a land to farm, but it is not easy for them to rent a big piece of land. Although the rent is considered reasonable and the land they rent is near their own land, they expect a much bigger size of land to farm in order to support the family financially. The total amount of the old age allowance to all Yun-Lin old farmers over 65 from social welfare is NT＄5,300 million per year(2003). TV is the best mass media for Yun-Lin farmers to get the latest information of policy measures. Most of them did not attend the propaganda campaign of “Activation of fallow land program” but they support the policy and agree that there should be clear qualification. Yun-Lin has a very good opportunity to develop agricultural marketing, management and export trade zone. About half of all Yun-Lin farmers support the government’s incentive policy of exchanging farm lands of the same size or value. They agree that there should be limitations on the land size, household income and age for the retired farmers’ allowance. They also agree that only water field ricfarmers are qualified for the settled- price buying policy and those who grow the most suitable crops on the land can apply for the subsidies.
生物農學 > 農業