Title

防災社區與公民參與之研究

Translated Titles

The Study of Community-based Disaster Prevention and Citizen Participation

DOI

10.6342/NTU201802307

Authors

史明原

Key Words

防災社區 ; 社區降低災害風險 ; 公民參與 ; 公民參與階梯 ; 災害防救 ; community-based disaster prevention ; community-based risk reduction management ; citizen participation ; Ladder of Citizen Participation ; disaster prevention and rescue

PublicationName

臺灣大學政治學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2018年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

林子倫

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

我國防災社區推動自九二一地震後開始擴大發展,實際上也同時產生許多待改善問題,其中最重要的是,許多防災社區工作之執行流於形式,特別是當政府資源抽離之後,社區自己本身無法形成防災組織來執行社區防救災工作,防災社區無法持續運作。本研究透過公民參與階梯及相關理論之應用,檢視現行防災社區執行之現況,並分析其中公民參與之模式與情形,找出影響防災社區持續推動之重要因素,並以質性深度訪談法我國推動防社區計畫政府機關及曾多次執行防災社區計畫或持續多年執行防災社區工作之社區領導者意見,最後建構深化防災社區公民參與之策略,讓防災社區之推動能真正由下而上,社區民眾能真正積極參與,並永續發展社區防救災工作,才能在災害來臨時,社區民眾能自主避災離災、自助互助,減少生命財產之損失。 研究發現,我國防災社區計畫之實際參與的程度屬於Sherry R. Arnstein公民參與階梯中的「告知」或「諮詢」階層,而執行防災社區計畫成效較佳的社區,實際參與的程度屬於公民參與階梯中的「安撫」階層,即我國防災社區推動之現況屬「形式主義參與(Tokenism)」,仍無法避免有參與不足及無法持續運作等問題,致使與防災社區之理想目標間產生缺口,本研究即嘗試導入公民參與理論,填補現況之缺口,強調公民參與是公民之權力,讓權力擁有者納入各方意見,並提出未來深化我國防災社區公民參與之策略建議,包括編列持續穩定的經費或申請管道、提高社區領導者的意願、賦予社區政策及管理能力、考量社區的歷史災害與自然環境特性並討論不同需求、運用公私協力模式運作,並保留彈性、建立審核專業技術團隊能力之機制、結合社區相關議題並整合政府計畫及資源及提升社區防災意識等事項。

English Abstract

After Chi-chi earthquake in 1999, the programs of community-based disaster prevention have started to expand and some issues are also unresolved in the meantime. One of the issues is that the communities themselves cannot operate the community-based organizations and perform the disaster prevention and rescue works when the resources of government are no longer available. This study applies the “A Ladder of Citizen Participation” and related theories and reviews how the programs of community-based disaster prevention are conducted in Taiwan. Also, the citizen participation involved is analyzed to find out the critical factors influencing the promotion of community-based disaster prevention. By qualitative in-depth interviews with representatives from government agencies and the leaders of the communities, this study provides strategies to increase citizen participation in the programs of community-based disaster prevention and the residents in the communities can actually be involved in the disaster prevention and rescue works. When the disasters strike, the residents can spontaneously evacuate or help each other to reduce the loss of lives and properties. This study finds out that the citizen participation in the programs of community-based disaster prevention is on the rung of “Informing” or “Consultation” in the “Ladder of Citizen Participation”. The citizen participation of some better-performed communities can even fall on the rung of “placation”. This means that the citizen participation of the programs of community-based disaster prevention in Taiwan is “Tokenism” and there are still problems to cause the gap between the goal and the reality, including lack of participation and unable to operate by themselves. This study tries to introduce the theory of citizen participation to fill up the gap by emphasizing the citizen power and also suggests strategies for future programs of community-based disaster prevention, including having stable budgets or applications, raising the willingness of the leader of the communities, building the capabilities of policy and management, discussing different needs regarding to historic disasters and natural environment of the communities, partnership between the public and private sectors, creating verification system of professional institutions, integrating various issues and programs in the community, and strengthening the disaster awareness.

Topic Category 社會科學院 > 政治學研究所
社會科學 > 政治學
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