Title

國家保護責任原則之實踐與未來:國際於利比亞干預行動之分析

Translated Titles

The Practice and Future of Responsibility to Protect: An Analysis of the International Intervention in Libya

DOI

10.6845/NCHU.2013.00790

Authors

巫政憲

Key Words

國家保護責任 ; 利比亞 ; 聯合國 ; 人權保護 ; 人道干預 ; 武力使用 ; responsibility to protect ; Libya ; human rights protection ; humanitarian intervention ; use of force

PublicationName

中興大學國際政治研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2013年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

蔡東杰

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

在《國家保護責任》的原則下,聯合國安理會於2011年5月17日通過安理會1973號決議,內容包括於利比亞上空設立禁航區,重申利比亞當局保護平民的主權責任,並呼籲國際社會採取必要干預手段來保護其人民。此決議對於國際社會實踐《國家保護責任》而言有兩個重要的意義:首先,此決議反應出安理會態度的改變,為實踐國際保護人權的責任,武力的使用有其必要性。第二,此決議是安理會第一次不顧當事國的抗議與反對,授權進行干預,突破人道干預的國際實踐慣例。 有鑑於《國家保護責任》原則對於國際實踐人權保護以及重塑主權意涵的重要性,本文將針對《國家保護責任》原則的起源、發展進行探討,同時試圖探究國家保護責任是否具有國際法規範性質;並以個案分析的研究方法針對2011年國際於利比亞進行的干預行動進行分析,除探究其行動之合法性以及道德性、國際成員對於軍事行動的批評,更討論利比亞所顯示出國際在實踐《國家保護責任》原則時所面臨到的問題,以及此干預行動對未來國際實踐《國家保護責任》所可能帶來的影響。 本文發現,不應將國家保護責任視為一單純原則,毋寧,應視國家保護責任原則為一個規範複合體:個別國家的保護責任、國際社會的協助責任與國際社會的干預責任。個別國家的保護責任可依循現行有效之國際人權法與人道法而實踐,因此有國際法拘束性;但國際社會的協助責任與回應責任,則仍處於形成國際習慣法規範的過程。同時依據Kathryn Sikkink與Martha Finnnemore所提出的規範發展生命週期觀察,可發現國家保護責任原則仍處於規範推廣的階段,有待國際社會透過實踐促進抑或弱化其規範性的確立。 另外透過個案分析的結果,本文發現國際於利比亞的干預行動雖受有聯合國安理會第1970號與第1973號的授權,但部分國家提供武器與派遣軍事諮詢人員,因違反授權明文內容而不具合法性;或是致力推翻格達費政權的目的,雖無法明確被認定違反授權內容,但於道德上卻顯有瑕疵。同時,從利比亞的案例可觀察出國際已不再質疑是否有國家保護責任,而是針對該如何實踐國家保護責任的部分有所爭議。 雖然國際於利比亞的實踐建立了國際回應責任的具體操作機制,對於國家保護責任的規範性之確立有所助益,但因軍事行動超越授權與道德非議的爭議,反降低部分國家(如南非)與反對勢力(中、俄)未來引用國家保護責任原則的意願。國家保護責任未來實踐不只要面臨新一波的反抗勢力,更要面對的是原則本身內涵如何進一步機制化與操作化的難題。

English Abstract

On March 17, 2001, in response to the iminent danger of atrocities, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1973, authorizing collective military intervention in Libya, in order to protect Libyans from their own government. The adoption of this resolution and the events that followed signaled for the first time the willingness of the international community to prioritize human rights protection at the expense of the sacred state right to sovereignty. This thesis aims to understand better the RtoP principle and its effect on shaping expectations on state behavior. It first examines the evolution of the principle of Responsibility to Protect, from its initial formulation in 2001 to 2011, before the Libyan intervention (Ochapter 2); then, using criteria set up by international costumary law, the nature of RtoP is analyzed accordingly (chapter 3). This analysis concludes that RtoP has not yet become a norm in internation law, though it does establish a different set of expectations on state behavior regarding the relationship between a state and the population within its borders. As far as protecting civilians under threat is concerned, the Libyan intervention is widely deemed as timely and successful. Nevertheless, some UN members and regional organizations critize NATO’s military operation as going beyond the mandate of UNSCR 1973, by enforcing regime change and sending military staff to advise the rebel forces on the ground. In addition, few states (i.e. France, Egypt, Qatar) were accused of flagrantly violating the arms embargo by supplying weapons to anti-Qaddafi fighters. A thorough analysis of both UNSCR 1973 and the military operations in Lybia is provided in Chapter 4 of this thesis, which concludes that though intervention was undoubtedly necessary to alleviate the imminent threat to human life, the implementation of RtoP in this case gives credence to critics’ claims that military operations extended beyond the Security Council mandate. The next chapter discusses the political and legal implications of the intervention in Lybia for the evolution of RtoP and the thesis ends with a summary of the findings.

Topic Category 法政學院 > 國際政治研究所
社會科學 > 政治學
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  70. 壹、 中文部分
  71. (一) 專書與專書論文
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  73. 姜皇池,《國際公法導論》,(臺北:新學林 2008)
  74. 楊永明,《國際安全與國際法:國際安全秩序規範與機制的建構與挑戰》 (臺北:元照,2008年)
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  82. 貳、 英文部分
  83. (一) 專書與專書論文
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