Title

卡社布農語語法概略

Translated Titles

A Sketch Grammar of Takibakha Bunun

DOI

10.6843/NTHU.2012.00018

Authors

姜懿娟

Key Words

布農語 ; 卡社 ; 語法

PublicationName

清華大學語言學研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2012年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

廖秀娟

Content Language

英文

Chinese Abstract

本論文旨在探討布農語北部方言中的卡社布農語的一些音韻、詞彙與句法現象。 本研究發現,卡社布農語共有十六個輔音與五個元音音位(/i, e, a, o, u/),而非像先前的研究所述的僅有三個元音。 在詞彙方面,本文分別探討了數詞與時間表達詞彙兩項議題。根據Rubino(2000)對於Ilocano數詞的分析,本文亦將卡社布農語的數詞分為七項:cardinal、indefinite、limitative、multiplicative、fractional、distributive以及ordinal。在時間表達詞彙方面,本文將其分為specific time expressions和deictic expressions。 在卡社布農語的句法方面,本文討論了結構標記(包括格位標記、人稱代名詞、指示標記及連繫詞)、基本的語法特徵(包括語序、名詞句與動詞句結構,特別是焦點系統、時貌與情態)以及四種卡社布農語句型結構(包括狀語句、交互句、疑問句與否定句)。在句法方面,本文共有以下三項發現。第一,本文發現卡社布農語共有兩個格位標記,分別為標示主格的(C)a和斜格的(C)i。其次,本文發現第三人稱代名詞的形式和表現與指示代名詞近乎一致,但卻與第一人稱和第二人稱較不相似。最後,本文發現卡社布農語總共有五個焦點標記,而非四個。第五個焦點標記為受惠者標記ʔis … an。

English Abstract

This thesis aims to provide a preliminary description of the phonology, lexicon, and syntax of Takibakha, one of the Northern dialects of Bunun. Takibakha Bunun has 16 consonants and 5 vowels. A significant finding is that Takibakha has five phonemic vowels (/i, e, a, o, u/), rather than three as claimed in previous studies. In the discussion of lexicon, two topics, numerals and temporal expressions are covered. Takibakha numerals are divided into cardinal, indefinite, limitative, multiplicative, fractional, distributive, and ordinal. Temporal expressions are divided into specific time expressions and deictic expressions. As for syntax, I discuss construction markers (including case marking system, personal pronouns, deictic expressions, and ligatures), basic properties of clauses (including word order, the structure of nominal and verbal clauses, and more specifically, focus, aspect, and mood), and four types of clauses (including adverbial, reciprocal, interrogative, and negative clauses) in Takibakha. The following observations are made in the discussion of Takibakha syntax. First, I argue for the occurrence of two case markers in Takibakha: (C)a and (C)i, rather than one as claimed in previous studies. These two markers are used to mark nominative and oblique cases, respectively. Second, I observe that third person pronouns behave like demonstratives rather than first and second person pronouns. Third, I observe the occurrence of five focuses, rather than four, in Takibakha. The fifth focus is marked by ʔis-…-an, which is used to indicate beneficiary focus.

Topic Category 人文學 > 語言學
人文社會學院 > 語言學研究所
Reference
  1. ---. 1998. Ca-reduplication and Proto-Austronesian grammar. Oceanic Linguistics 37(1):29-64.
    連結:
  2. ---. 1999. Subgrouping, circularity, and extinction: Some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics. In Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, ed. by Elizabeth Zeitoun and Paul Jen kuei Li, 31-94. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
    連結:
  3. Huang, Lillian M. 1997. Kaohsiungxian de bunongyu (The Bunun language in Kaohsiung County). In Kaohsiungxian de nandao yuyan (Austronesian languages spoken in Kaohsiung County), ed. by Paul Jen-kuei Li, 351-409. Kaohsiung: The Government of Kaohsiung County. [in Chinese]
    連結:
  4. Huang, Lillian M., Elizabeth Zeitoun, Marie M. Yeh, Anna H. Chang, and Joy J. Wu. 1999. A typological overview of pronominal systems of some Formosan languages. In Selected papers from the 5th International Conference on Chinese Linguistics, ed. by Samuel H. Wang, Feng-fu Tsao, and Chin-fa Lien, 165-198. Taipei: The Crane.
    連結:
  5. ---. 1995. Bunongyu cidian zhong de dongci bianzuan (Compiling verbs in Isbukun Bunun dictionary). In Taiwan nandao minzu yuyan yanjiu lunwenji (Papers on the indigeous languages of Taiwan), ed. by Paul Jen-kuei Li and Ying-chin Lin, 19-30. Taipei: Ministry of Education. [in Chinese
    連結:
  6. ---. 1999. Bunun tense and aspect. In Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesion Linguistics, ed. by Elizabeth Zeitoun and Paul Jen kuei Li, 455-487. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
    連結:
  7. ---. 2010. An Isbukun Bunun dictionary. Taipei: Council of Indigenous Peoples.
    連結:
  8. Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 1987 [2004]. The preglottalized stops in Bunun. In Selected papers on Formosan languages, ed. by Paul Jen-kuei Li, 301-310. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
    連結:
  9. ---. 1988. A comparative study of Bunun dialects. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology 59(2): 479-508.
    連結:
  10. ---. 1997a. The southern dialect of Bunun spoken in Xinyi Township, Nantou County. In Kaohsiungxian de nandao yuyan (Austronesian languages spoken in Kaohsiung County), ed. by Paul Jen-kuei Li, 300-350. Kaohsiung: The Government of Kaohsiung County. [in Chinese]
    連結:
  11. ---. 2000. Some aspects of Pazeh syntax. Grammatical analysis: Morphology, syntax, and semantics, studies in honor of Stanley Starosta, ed. by Videa P. De Guzman and Byron Bender, 89-108. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication No.29. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
    連結:
  12. ---. 2002. Nominalization in Pazih. Language and Linguistics 3(2):227-239.
    連結:
  13. ---. 2006. Numerals in Formosan languages. Oceanic Linguistics 41(1):133-152.
    連結:
  14. Liao, Hsiu-chuan. 2004. Transitivity and ergativity in Formosan and Philippine languages. PhD dissertation, Department of Linguistics, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.
    連結:
  15. Lin, Kuo-Chiao. 2010. The infix -(in)- in Takituduh Bunun and the syntax of inner aspect. M.A. thesis, Graduate Institute of Linguistics, National Taiwan University.
    連結:
  16. Paris, Marie-Claude, and Marie-Thérèse Vinet. 2010. Approximative zuǒyòu ‘around, about’ in Chinese. Language and Linguistics 10(4):767-801.
    連結:
  17. Payne, Thomas E. 1997. Describing morphosyntax: A guide for field linguists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    連結:
  18. Reid, Lawrence A., and Hsiu-chuan Liao. 2004. A brief syntactic typology of Philippine languages. Language and Linguistics 5(2): 433-490.
    連結:
  19. Ross, Malcolm. 1995. Reconstructing Proto-Austronesian verbal morphology: Evidence from Taiwan. In Austronesian studies relating to Taiwan, ed. by Paul Jen-kuei Li, Cheng-hwa Tsang, Ying-kuei Huang, Dah-an Ho, and Chiu-yu Tseng, 727-791. Symposium Series of the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Number 3. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
    連結:
  20. ---. 2009. Proto-Austronesian verbal morphology: A reappraisal. In Austronesian historical linguistics and culture history: A Festschrift for Robert Blust, ed. by Alexander Adelaar and Andrew Pawley, 295-326. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
    連結:
  21. Rubino, Carl Ralph Galvez. 2000. Ilocano dictionary and grammar. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
    連結:
  22. Starosta, Stanley. 2003. Do compounds have internal structure? A seamless analysis. Explorations in seamless morphology, ed. by Rajendra Singh and Stanley Starosta, 116-147. New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, and London: Sage Publications.
    連結:
  23. Teng, Stacy Fang-ching. 2008. A reference grammar of Puyuma: An Austronesian language of Taiwan. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
    連結:
  24. Trask, R. L. 1993. A dictionary of grammatical terms in linguistics. New York: Routledge.
    連結:
  25. Tsuchida, Shigeru. 1976. Reconstruction of Proto-Tsouic phonology. Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa Monograph Series No. 5. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa.
    連結:
  26. Vendler, Zeno. 1957. Verbs and times. The Philosophical Review 66(2): 143-160.
    連結:
  27. Wu, Hsiao-hung Iris. 2009. Existential construction in Isbukun Bunun. Oceanic Linguistics 28(2): 364-378.
    連結:
  28. Zeitoun, Elizabeth, and Lillian M. Huang. 2000. Concerning ka-, an overlooked marker of verbal derivation in Formosan languages. Oceanic Linguistics 39(2): 391-414.
    連結:
  29. Zeitoun, Elizabeth, Lillian M. Huang, Marie M. Yeh, Anna H. Chang, and Joy J. Wu. 1996. The temporal, aspectual, and modal systems of some Formosan languages: A typological perspective. Oceanic Linguistics 35(1): 21-56.
    連結:
  30. Blust, Robert A. 1977. The Proto-Austronesian pronouns and Austronesian subgrouping: A preliminary report. University of Hawai‘i Working Papers in Linguistics 9(2): 1-14.
  31. ---. 2009. The Austronesian languages. Pacific Linguistics 602. Canberra: The Australian National University.
  32. Chang, Chung-yang Marco. 2009. On the interrogative constructions in Isbukun Bunun. M.A. thesis, Graduate Institute of English, National Taiwan Normal University.
  33. Chen, Irene Shen-Tzu. 2009. Word formation in Takibakha Bunun. M.A. thesis, Graduate Institute of Taiwan Languages and Language Education, National Hsinchu University of Education.
  34. Council of Indigenous People (CIP), and Ministry of Education (MOE). 2005. The Standard orthography of aboriginal languages. Taipei: Ministry of Education. [in Chinese]
  35. De Busser, Rik L. J. 2009. Towards a grammar of Takivatan Bunun. PhD dissertation, Research Centre for Linguistic Typology, La Trobe University.
  36. Ferrell, Raleigh. 1969. Taiwan aboriginal groups: Problems in cultural and linguistic classification. Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica Monograph No.17. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  37. He, Rufen, Siqi Zeng, Wensu Li, and Qingchun Lin. 1985. Gaoshanzu yuyan jianzhi: Bunenyu (A sketch grammar of the languages of the mountain tribes: Bunun). Beijing: Min-Zu Press. [in Chinese]
  38. Ho, Dah-an, and Hsiu-fang Yang. 2000. Nandaoyu yu Taiwan nandaoyu (Austronesian languages and Formosan languages). In Series on Formosan Languages. 1-36. Taipei: Yuan-liu Pub. Co. [in Chinese]
  39. Huang, Hui-chuan. 2002. Zhuoshe bunongyu de huayin xingcheng guilu (Glide formation in Takituduh Bunun). Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies 32: 441 468. [in Chinese]
  40. ---. 2005. On the status of onglides in Isbukun Bunun. Concentric 31(1): 1-20.
  41. ---. 2006. Resolving vowel clusters: A comparison of Isbukun Bunun and Squliq Atayal. Language and Linguistics 7(1): 1-26.
  42. Huang, Ying-Kuei. 1992. Dongpushe Bunongren de shehui shenghuo (Cultural practice and social life among the Bunun of Taketonpu). Taipei: Academia Sinica. [in Chinese]
  43. Jeng, Hengsyung. 1977. Topic and focus in Bunun. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  44. Jheng, Yu-Lin. 2005. Bunongyu zhuoshe fangyan zhong de xinci yanjiu (A study of neologisms in Bunun). M.A. thesis, Graduate Institute of Chinese Language and Literature, National Chi Nan University. [in Chinese]
  45. Li, Lilian Li-ying. 2010. Clitics in Nantou Isbukun Bunun (Austronesian). M.A. thesis, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, National Chi Nan University.
  46. ---. 1997b. A syntactic typology of Formosan languages— case markers on nouns and pronouns. In Chinese languages and linguistics 4: 343-378, ed. by Chiu-yu Tseng, 343-378. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
  47. Li, Wensu, and Mahasan Dahu. 1990. Gaoshanzu bunongyu yusu -an de gouci gongneng (Morphological functions of the suffix -an in Bunun). Minority Languages of China 4: 25-28. [in Chinese]
  48. ---. 2008. “The development of benefactive-affect verbs in Philippine languages: Some implications for comparative Austronesian linguistics,” paper read at the 18th International Congress of Linguists (CIL 18), Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea, July 21-26, 2008.
  49. ---. 2011. Some morphosyntactic differences between Formosan and Philippine languages. Language and Linguistics 12(4): 845-876.
  50. Lin, Hsiu-Hsu. 1996. Isbukun phonology: A study of its segments, syllable structure, and phonological processes. M.A. thesis, Graduate Institute of Linguistics, National Tsing Hua University.
  51. Lin, Shu-yi Mars. 2011. Reconstructing negative morphemes in Proto-Austronesian: Evidence from Formosan languages. M.A. thesis, Graduate Institute of English, National Taiwan Normal University.
  52. Lin, Tai, Wensu Li, and Shengsian Lin. 1998. Zouguo shikong de yueliang (The moon that walks pass the time and space). Taipei: The Morning Star Pub. Inc. [in Chinese]
  53. Lin, Tai, Siqi Zeng, Wensu Li, and Bukun Ismahasan. 2001. Bunongyu goucifa yanjiu (Isbukun morphology). Taipei: Du-ce Wen-hua Pub. Co. [in Chinese]
  54. Lin, Ying-chin. 2000. A reference grammar of Pazeh. Series on Formosan Languages 3. Taipei: Yuan-liu Pub. Co.
  55. Manqoqo, Atul. 2011. Kashe bunongyu mingci gouci yanjiu chutan (A preliminary study on Takibakha nominal morphology). M.A. thesis, Graduate Institute of Taiwan Languages and Language Education, National Hsin-Chu University of Education. [in Chinese]
  56. Manqoqo, Atul, A-Hao Wu, and Mu-Sen Chuan. 2010. Kashe bunongyu tujie cidian (Takibakha Bunun picture dictionary). Nantou: The Government of Nantou County. [in Chinese]
  57. Miyamoto, Nobuto. 1995. Taiwan de yuanzhuminzu (The aboriginal people in Taiwan), translated by Kuei-bang Wei. Taipei: Morning Star Pub. Inc. [in Chinese]
  58. Moriguchi, Tsunekazu. 2001. A linguistic examination of the oral traditions and its relationship to anthropology. Shizuoka: Shizuoka University. [in Japanese]
  59. ---. 2007. Texts, contexts, and materials: Research reports on Batanes and Taiwan. Shizuoka: Shizuoka University. [in Japanese]
  60. Nihira, Yoshiro. 1983. A Bunun vocabulary: A language of Formosa, 2nd edition. private circulation.
  61. Niida, Sumino. 2008. Temporal expressions in Japanese and the Thao language of Taiwan: Tense and aspect. Taisho Gengogaku Kenkyu 17:21-49. [in Japanese]
  62. Nojima, Motoyasu. 1996. Lexical prefixes of Bunun verbs. Gengo Kenkyu: Journal of the Linguistic Society of Japan 110: 1-27.
  63. ---. 2006. Verb classification in Bunun. Studies of Eastern Eurasian Languages 1: 378-388. [in Japanese]
  64. Ogawa, Naoyoshi, and Erin Asai. 1935. The myths and traditions of the Formosan native tribes: Texts and notes. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Taihoku Imperial University. [in Japanese]
  65. Pan, Chia-jung. 2010. The grammatical relation of temporal expressions in Tsou. Muenchen: Lincom.
  66. Ramos, Teresita V. 1971. Tagalog structures. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
  67. Reid, Lawrence A. 1978. Problems in the reconstruction of Proto-Philippine construction markers. In Second International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics: Proceedings, Fascicle I- Western Austronesian, ed. by S. A. Wurm and Lois Carrington, 33-66. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
  68. Shi, Chao-Kai. 2008. The linker tu in Isbukun Bunun. M.A. thesis, Graduate Institute of Taiwan Culture and Languages, National Kaohsiung Normal University.
  69. Su, Yi-Fan. 2008. Adverbials in Takituduh Bunun. M.A. thesis, Graduate Institute of Linguistics, National Tsing Hua University.
  70. Sung, Chia-hsing. 2005. Temporal expressions in Paiwan. MA thesis, National Chung-Cheng University.
  71. Tien, Che-Yi. 2002. Taiwan bunongzu de wenhua (The cultures of Bunun in Taiwan). Taipei: Shita Bookstore. [in Chinese]
  72. ---. 1989. The Bunun language. In The Sanseido encyclopaedia of linguisitcs, vol 1. Languages of the world, Part one, ed. by Takashi Kamei, Rokurō Kōno, and Eiichi Chino. Tokyo: Sanseido Press. [in Japanese]
  73. Wu, Peter A. 1969. A descriptive analysis of the Bunun language. A long term paper. Washington D. C.: Georgetown University.
  74. Yeh, Mei-li. 2003. A syntactic and semantic study of Saisiyat verbs. PhD dissertation, Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University.
  75. Yu, Lee-Jiun. 2009. The acoustic characteristics of consonants and vowels in Isbukun Bunun. M.A. thesis, Department of English, National Kaohsiung Normal University.
  76. Zeitoun, Elizabeth. 2000. A reference grammar of Bunun. Series on Formosan Languages 5. Taipei: Yuan-liu Pub. Co.
  77. ---. 2002. Reciprocals in Formosan languages. Paper presented at the Ninth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics (9 ICAL), Canberra, January 8-11.
  78. ---. 2010. On the reconstruction of reciprocal prefixes in PAN based on Formosan data. Talk given at the class ‘Comparative Austronesian Morphosyntax,’ National Tsing Hua University, November 24.
  79. Zeitoun, Elizabeth, Tai-hwa Chu, and Lalo’ a Tahesh Kaybaybaw. Forthcoming. A study of Saisiyat morphology. Language and Linguistics Monograph Series. Taipei: Academia Sinica. (under review)
  80. Zeitoun, Elizabeth, Stacy Fang-ching Teng, and Raleigh Ferrell. 2010. Reconstruction of ‘2’ in PAN and related issues. Language and Linguistics 11(4): 853-884.
  81. Zeng, Siqi. 1986. Shitan bunenyu cizhui in/i (On the affix in/i in Bunun). Zhongyang Minzu Xueyuan Xuebao 1: 89-93. [in Chinese]