認知機制: 中文『銀』字及其譬喻用法

Translated Titles

The Cognitive Mechanism of Yin銀 & Its Metaphorical Extension in Mandarin Chinese





Key Words

隱喻 ; 物種關係鏈理論 ; 認知集合網 ; 固體概念 ; 抽象概念 ; metaphor ; Great Chain of Metaphor ; Conceptual Integration Network ; solid concept ; abstract concept



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Chinese Abstract

本論文旨在探討中文中『銀』字的譬喻用法,並將研究結果跟Huang (2009)的研究『金』字做比較,藉此來瞭解我們人類如何利用經濟領域的概念來理解其他不同的概念。在中文中,『銀』字主要有兩個基本意思,一個是當作金屬另一個是用來代表(銀)白色。但除了這兩個基本概念外,『銀』字也有其隱喻及代喻的功能。本研究以Lakoff 和Turner (1989)的物種關係鏈理論 (Great Chain of Metaphor)及Fauconnier和Tuner (1998)的認知集合網 (Conceptual Integration Network) 做為基礎,提出以下四個議題: (1)『銀』在Fixed Expression中可以分成幾大類,(2)『銀』在Metaphor Clusters中又可被分成幾大類,(3)『銀』在 Fixed Expression和Metaphor Clusters中是否有相似性或者其完全不相關,(4)『銀』跟『金』在認知上是否有任何異同處,來進一步探討『銀』的字面語意下所衍生出的認知機制。 研究分析發現808個『銀』字相關用語,在(a) Fixed Expression中主要可分成五種譬喻類型,在(b) Metaphor Clusters中也大致可分成五種譬喻類型。而(c)這兩種用語的譬喻類型有著其相似性,他們各大約可分成人類,動物,植物,物品和自然界之物‧此結果剛好跟Lakoff和Turner (1989)年所提出的理論相符。在探討完『銀』的認知譬喻用法後,本研究也把『銀』的結果跟Huang (2009)所做的『金』的研究拿來做比較。發現(d)『銀』跟『金』的相似處在於當他們都是用來譬喻較固體的概念時,約可分為:人類、動物、植物、物品。而他們的相異處在於當他們都是用來譬喻較抽象的概念時。例如:『銀』用來比喻在一場賽事中的第二名跟年老『金』用來譬喻比賽中的第一名及枯黃。『銀』的代喻用法及其隱喻現象,再次證明人類的認知與語言行為跟四周的環境是息息互相關連的。

English Abstract

As many scholars have stated metaphors are not only a piece of literary work but also represent the experiences and cognitions in a human’s mind (Lakoff, 1992; Gibbs & O’Brien, 1990; Goatly, 2000; Gibbs, 2002; Kövecses, 2002). To connect with the recent hottest topic in the world, this thesis studies the metaphorical expressions in daily life, especially focusing on the Chinese word yin2 銀 ‘silver’. We will further compare and contrast our results with Huang’s (2009) study of jin1 金 ‘gold’. The study uses Lakoff and Turner’s (1989) Great Chain Metaphor and Fauconnier & Turner’s (1998) Conceptual Integration Network as the theoretical frameworks to answer the following research questions: (1) How is yin2銀categorized in fixed expressions? (2) How is yin2 銀categorized in metaphor clusters? (3) Are the categorizations of yin2 銀 in fixed expressions and metaphor clusters similar to each other or mutually exclusive? (4) What are the similarities and differences between yin2 銀and jin1 金 on cognitive viewpoint? Through dictionary sources, Web edition of Ministry of Education Chinese dictionary, Great Dictionary, and the database source, Newspapers in Taiwan, yin2 銀 metaphorical expressions within the current decade are used to conduct the research. The results demonstrate that (a) there are five basic categories of yin2 銀 fixed expressions as YIN IS A PERSON, YIN IS AN ANIMAL, YIN IS A PLANT, YIN IS AN OBJECT and YIN IS NATURAL THING. (b) There are also five basic categories in yin2 銀 metaphor clusters. They are YIN IS A FARMER, YIN IS A BIRD, YIN IS A FLOWER and TREE, YIN IS A BULLET and YIN IS A STAR. (c) The categorizations of yin2銀fixed expressions and metaphor clusters are similar to each other. Via frequency test, the five categories of yin2 銀 fit within the model of the Great Chain Metaphor which entails that living beings, things and literary works in this world follow certain rules. (d) The results show that yin2 銀 and jin1 金 are similar to each other on their solid concept, such as YIN IS A OBJECT and JIN IS MEDICINE. On the other hand, both terms are different from each other on their abstract concept as YIN REPRESENTS NUMBER TWO but JIN REPRESENTS NUMBER ONE. These metaphorical similarities and differences between yin2 銀 ‘silver’ and jin1 金 ‘gold’ reflect our relationship, cognition and judgment with the world.

Topic Category 人文學 > 外國文學
文學院 > 外國語文學系
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