Title

漢語「面」的多義性及語法化現象

Translated Titles

The Polysemy and Grammaticalization of Mian 面 in Mandarin Chinese

DOI

10.6844/NCKU.2010.00061

Authors

劉怡君

Key Words

語法化 ; 多義詞 ; 身體部位 ; 語義發展 ; 量詞 ; 詞綴 ; 概念的語言編碼 ; grammaticalization ; polysemy ; body parts ; semantic development ; classifier ; suffix ; Linguistic Coding of Concepts

PublicationName

成功大學外國語文學系學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2010年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

謝菁玉

Content Language

英文

Chinese Abstract

本論文以歷時性的語料為基礎,呈現漢語「面」遵循各自不同演化路徑的語法化過程。主要採取「概念的語言編碼」(Linguistic Coding of Concepts scheme, Heine, Claudi and Hünnemeyer, 1991) 以及「語法化的連續變異」(Cline of Grammaticalization, Hopper & Tragugott, 1993)來支持「面」從實詞到功能詞的虛化過程。本文的語料來源是取自線上古漢語語料庫(Academia Sinica Ancient Chinese Corpus) 和現代漢語平衡語料庫(Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus of Modern Chinese)。本研究目的主要有三個層面:(1) 以「概念的語言編碼」來探討「面」在實詞裡的語義發展,(2) 呈現「面」從身體詞彙演變至量詞和詞綴的演化歷程,如:一面牆、見一面、上面,(3) 根據歷時性的分析,揭示出語法化過程裡的潛在因素,例如漢語使用者的認知概念。 結果顯示:(1)、「面」在實詞裡的語義發展,分別涉及名詞「面」以及動詞「偭」的兩個路徑。名詞「面」遵循著人(PESRON)、物(OBJECT)到質(QUALITY)的語義發展歷程(PERSN > OBJECT > QUALITY)。動詞「偭」則是沿著動作事件(ACTIVITY)、空間(SPACE)到時間(TIME)的語義發展過程(ACTIVITY > SPACE > TIME)。(2)、名詞「面」和動詞「偭」則在中古漢語時期(Middle Chinese)分別演化成名量詞以及動量詞。此外,我們也觀察到主觀化現象(subjectification) (Traugott, 1995)反映在名量詞「面」的語法化歷程裡。(3)、詞綴「面」的演化歷程符合「語法化的連續變異」裡從名詞到詞綴(a noun-to-affix cline)的演化路徑。(4)、透過歷時性的語言分析,我們得知認知機制、語言層級、歷史和文化背景在語法化過程裡相互依存的關係。 經由本論文歷時性的分析,反映出「面」的語法化現象是由人類的認知過程來支配。為有效率達成溝通的目的正是驅使「面」語法化的過程並導致「面」多義性的特質。

English Abstract

This study attempts to examine diachronic data and shows how the grammaticalization of mian proceeds along different evolutionary paths into function words. The theoretical backgrounds are the Linguistic Coding of Concepts scheme (Heine, Claudi, and Hünnemeyer, 1991) and the Cline of Grammaticalization (Hopper & Traugott, 1993). The linguistic data are collected from Academia Sinica Ancient Chinese Corpus and Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus of Modern Chinese. The diachronic data of mian used for this study are located into three periods: Old Chinese, Middle Chinese and Modern Chinese (based on Norman, 1988). Our purpose of study is three-fold: (1) to explore the semantic development of mian on content words in terms of the Linguistic Coding of Concepts, (2) to expound the evolutionary process of mian from being a body part term to being a member of the classifier systems and a suffix, such as in yi2-mian4-qiang2一面牆, jian4-yi2-mian4 見一面 and shang3-mian4 上面, (3) based on the diachronic analysis, to uncover the underlying factors for grammaticalization, such as human conceptualizations of the Chinese people. Four findings are obtained: (1) the semantic development of mian on content words involves the nominal usage of mian (mian4 面) and the verbal counterpart of mian (mian3 偭). Nominal usage of mian is responsible for the semantic development from PERSON, OBJECT, to QUALITY (PERSON > OBJECT > QUALITY). Verbal mian triggers the semantic development from ACTIVITY, SPACE and then to TIME (ACTIVITY > SPACE > TIME). (2) The nominal usage of mian and verbal counterpart evolved into nominal and its verbal classifiers in Middle Chinese. Moreover, subjectification (Traugott, 1995) is observed in the semantic change of mian from a body-part term to a nominal classifier. (3) The evolutionary sequence of the suffix mian corresponds to a noun-to-affix cline in terms of the Cline of Grammaticalization (Hopper & Traugott, 1993). (4) Through the historical analysis, we discern there are to be a correlation amongst cognition, linguistic levels and cultural or historical backgrounds in the grammaticalization of mian. In sum, the diachronic analysis of the grammaticalization mian reflects that the semantic change is governed by human cognitive processes. It is the communicative purposes of efficiency drives the grammaticalization of mian and then causes the emergence of lexical polysemy mian.

Topic Category 人文學 > 外國文學
文學院 > 外國語文學系
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