Title

溪頭地區坡地型土石流地形及發生特性研究

Translated Titles

The characteristics of topography and occurrence of hillslope debris flows in Shitou area

Authors

王隆昌

Key Words

崩塌地 ; 坡地型土石流 ; landslides ; hillslope debris flow

PublicationName

成功大學地球科學系學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2005年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

林慶偉

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

台灣位處歐亞板塊與菲律賓海板塊碰撞帶上,造山運動造成陡峭的地形及短而湍急的河川;加上全島雨量集中於夏季,造成山坡地災害如落石、淺層崩塌、土石流等土砂災害發生相當頻繁。921地震後,每遇豪雨或颱風,中部山區即傳出崩塌與土石流之災情,尤其以民國90年桃芝、納莉颱風所造成之災害損失最嚴重。在所發生之土砂災害類型裏,有些土石流發生於陡峭邊坡坡面且不具明顯溪溝地形,稱為坡地型土石流。   本研究蒐集溪頭地區桃芝、納莉颱風災後航空照片、5 X 5 m DEM等資料,進行溪流型土石流、坡地型土石流航照判釋,並利用地理資訊系統空間分析功能,求取溪流長度、溪流平均坡度、河高寬比、集水區面積、形狀係數等地形參數資料。根據所得地形參數進行統計分析及地形因子相關性分析,探討並比較溪流型、坡地型土石流地形特性差異。此外,本研究選定距坡趾距離、平均坡度、崩塌地面積、921地表水平加速度、桃芝最大時雨量等因子,進行坡地型土石流發生潛感因子分析,探討坡地型土石流發生的條件。   由分析結果發現,坡地型土石流具有溪流長度短、坡度陡峭、不具明顯溪溝地形,集水區面積小且形貌呈狹長狀;溪流水平長度與集水區面積有關係存在。溪流型土石流則具有溪流長度長、坡度緩、溪溝地形明顯,集水區面積大且形貌較為寬圓。溪流水平長度與集水區面積、溪流平均坡度與集水區面積、溪流水平長度與溪流平均坡度,皆有關係存在。由發生潛感因子分析得知,坡地型土石流源頭崩塌地的發育,可能受到921地震後續效應的影響。這些崩塌的土砂材料於適當的地形坡度、坡面運動距離、降雨條件下,開始沿著坡面運動,並使土砂材料與水充分混合,形成坡地型土石流。

English Abstract

Taiwan results from collision of Eurasian plate and Philippine Sea plate, orogeny produces steep topography and short and rapid rivers; in addition, rainfall frequently focuses on summer season producing slope instability such as rock falls, debris slides and debris flows. After 921 earthquake, the disaster of landslides and debris flows often occur in Taiwan central mountain area during rainfalls or typhoons, especially during Typhoon Toraji and Nari in 2001.In all kinds of numerous disasters ,some debris flows occurred on steep slope and gully topography were unapparent, were named hillslope debris flows.  This study collects aerial photos and 5 X 5m DEM of Shitou area after typhoon Toraji and Nari to identify channelized and hillslope debris flows. Geography information systems (GIS) is used to determine their topographic parameters, such as length, average slope, watershed area and the form factor of the watershed. According to the topographic parameters, the distributions of them and the relationships between them of channelized debris flows are compared with hillslope debris flows. Besides, this study choose five factors, such as slope, the area of landslides, the maximum precipitation brought by Typhoon Toraji, 921 horizontal peak ground accelerations, to determine the occurrence conditions of hillslope debris flows.  Hillslope debris flows, originating on steep slopes have the short gully length, small watershed and the narrow shape of the watershed of the topographic characteristics and gully length is related to watershed area. Channelized debris flows, originated on gully have the long gully length, large watershed and the wide shape of the watershed of the topographic characteristics and gully length is related to watershed area ,average slopes of bed. Average slopes of bed are related to watershed area. From the result of factor analysis, landslides triggered hillslope debris flows may influence by 921 earthquake. The materials of landslides will start moving along hill slope and mix with water in full to initiate hillslope debris flows on proper slopes, distance of mass movement, and rainfall conditions.

Topic Category 基礎與應用科學 > 地球科學與地質學
理學院 > 地球科學系
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