Title

由兩種不同病徵型茉莉花上所獲得之茉莉花T病毒全長基因體之解序與分析

Translated Titles

Analyses of two sets of complete genome sequences of Jasmine virus T obtained from jasmine plants with different symptoms

Authors

王信旻

Key Words

馬鈴薯Y屬病毒 ; 全長基因體序列 ; 茉莉花T病毒 ; complete genome sequence ; potyvirus ; Jasmine virus T

PublicationName

朝陽科技大學應用化學系生化科技碩博士班學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2014年

Academic Degree Category

碩士

Advisor

張清安

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

1995年本研究室於高屏地區發現茉莉花 (Jasminum sambac (Linn) Ait.) 葉片出現嚴重黃化嵌紋之病毒性病徵,經分離與鑑定證實病株中存在一種文獻尚未記載之馬鈴薯Y屬 (Potyvirus) 病毒,命名為茉莉花T病毒 (Jasmin virus T, 簡稱JaVT)。JaVT的各項生物及分子特性包括寄主範圍、感病細胞之病理變化、傳播方式及鞘蛋白 (CP) 基因之分子量與序列均已釐清;然而田間茉莉花病株上所呈現之嚴重黃化病徵是否即為JaVT所引起,由於沒有無病毒感染之茉莉花植株可供接種故至今無法確定。本研究室後續由嚴重黃化病徵之茉莉花上又分離獲得一Carlavirus屬病毒,經鑑定後證實為一尚未見諸報導之新病毒,命名為Jasmin virus C (JaVC)。在後續研究中發現JaVC只會發生在嚴重黃化嵌紋病徵之茉莉花植株中,而在少數呈現輕微嵌紋病徵之茉莉花上並未出現。本研究之目的在於釐清輕微與嚴重型病徵茉莉花植株中之JaVT在分子特性上是否有所差異,乃進行其全長基因體序列之解讀與分析。策略上利用已登錄於GenBank上之Potyvirus屬病毒基因體序列之保守區域配合JaVT已知之CP gene序列設計引子對進行此二不同病徵型茉莉花樣品中病毒全長基因體之增幅、選殖與解序。目前已分別獲得二組完整序列 (JaVT-M及JaVT-S),其中來自輕微病徵樣品之JaVT-M全長基因體含9639核苷酸 (nt),而來自嚴重型病徵之JaVT-S則含9660 nt。此乃目前已知感染茉莉花之potyviruses之首次全長基因體定序結果。依據此結果所為之病毒親緣性分析,證實印度於2008年登錄之Jasmine yellow mosaic potyvirus (JN807771.1) 與本研究室於2003年登錄之JaVT (EF535842) 應屬同種異名,故JaVT具命名優先性。我們比對JaVT-M與JaVT-S二基因體內各基因開放轉譯區 (open reading frame, ORF) 之核苷酸與胺基酸相同度 (identity),除NIb外其餘各ORF之核苷酸與胺基酸之相同度均在98-100 % 間,幾近相同。分析發現兩者間NIb ORF之核苷酸與胺基酸相同度分別只有90及96 %,為所有基因區最低者。JaVT-M之NIb全長含526個胺基酸,較之JaVT-S之NIb之全長517個胺基酸於C端下游附近多出9個胺基酸之嵌入序列。此外JaVT-S之3’端非轉譯區 (UTR) 較JaVT-M含有較長的 poly A尾部。針對兩者在NIb C端區域序列之差異,本研究設計一組可以增幅JaVT病毒3’端涵蓋NIb C端約1000 bp區域之引子對,分別增幅輕微與嚴重病徵型之茉莉花樣品,結果證實唯有前者所增幅之產物在NIb C端具有該特異性插入片段。印證此片段乃造成輕微病徵之JaVT所獨有。根據文獻報導NIb及3’端UTR之生物功能與病毒複製有關,因此推測JaVT-M基因體在NIb C端之特異插入片段與較短的3’端UTR有可能影響JaVT在組織內之複製,進而造成病徵之弱化。接續研究曾嘗試以即時定量real-time RT-PCR之方式比較二個不同病徵型茉莉花葉片組織內病毒複製量,但未獲得與上述推測吻合之結論。因此推測JaVT NIb與3’端UTR上所發現之差異序列可能尚涉及其他機制而造成感病茉莉花病徵之差異表現。此有待進一步之研究方能澄清。當然目前為止我們仍無法排除另一個茉莉花病毒JaVC可引起感病後加成效果,而造成病徵之加重。

English Abstract

A newly recognized potyvirus isolated from jasmine exhibiting foliar yellow mosaic symptoms was identified, characterized and reported as Jasmin virus T (JaVT) in 2003 by our laboratory. Biological and molecular properties including host range, cytological effect, mode of transmission and coat protein gene sequence of JaVT had been clarified. However, the etiology and specific symptom induced by JaVT on jasmine was still uncertain due to the lack of virus free jasmine plant materials for conducting inoculation test. In a recent study we further identified a carlavirus, provisionally named as Jasmin virus C (JaVC), associated closely with jasmine plants showing yellow mosaic symptom. While in some jasmine plants with only mild mottling, but not severe yellow mosaic symptom, JaVC was never detected. Therefore, this study attempted to reveal if the possibilities of molecular differences between JaVTs that might result differential expression of symptom severity in jasmine. The complete genome sequence of JaVTs from jasmine plants with severe yellow mosaic and mild mottling were separately amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and sequence analyzed. The strategy adapted to obtain complete JaVT genome sequence was by overlapping sequences of RT-PCR products amplified from different regions of JaVT genome. PCR primers for amplification were designed based on conservative sequences of potyviruses documented in the GenBenk. As for the terminal sequences in the 5’ non-translated region (NTR) of JaVTs were obtained using commercial kit of GeneRacerTM. Two complete genome sequences were thus separately obtained from jasmine plants with severe yellow mosaic (JaVT-S) and mild mottling (JaVT-M) symptoms. The former contained 9660 nucleotides (nt) while the latter had a shorter sequence of 9639 nt. These were the first two complete genome sequences ever elucidated from potyviruses infecting jasmine. Phylogenetic studies on these sequences with other known potyvirus genome sequences confirmed that JaVT was indeed a unique Potyvirus species. A potyvirus described as Jasmine yellow mosaic virus (JN807771.1) in India in 2008 was confirmed having 100% identities in amino acid sequence of coat protein with JaVT (EF535842) reported in 2003 by our laboratory. This result confirmed JaVT having the naming precedence of this viral pathogen. Comparative studies on the sequences between JaVT-S and JaVT-M found that besides the open reading frame (ORF) in NIb of both sequences, which had lowest identities in amino acid (96%) and nucleotide (90%) among all ORFs, the other ORFs between these two sequences were almost identical to each other. The NIb sequence of JaVT-M contained 526 amino acid (a.a.) residues, while the JaVT-S had only 517 a.a. residues. These 9 a.a. residues were expressed as an inserted fragment located nearby the C-terminal region of NIb. Moreover, it was found that the 3’-NTR of JaVT-S contained a longer poly A tail (64 nt) than that (16 nt) of the JaVT-M. To confirm the existence of the 9 a.a. inserted sequence in JaVT-M, a primer pair was designed to amplify the 3’ end region covering the C-terminal of NIb in JaVT genome and used to react with total RNA separately extracted from jasmine plants with mild mottle and severe yellow mosaic symptoms. The sequence result of the amplicons confirmed that only the one from mild mottling, but not from the severe yellow mosaic, contained the specific 9 a.a. inserted sequence in NIb. Based on literature, NIb and poly A tail of potyvirus genome might involve the replication of virus in infected tissue. Therefore, we speculated that the sequence differences in NIb and 3’-NTR of JaVT might affect the efficiency of virus replication and accordingly resulting differential expression of symptom severity. However, a real-time quantitative RT-PCR technique used to compare the accumulated virus genome between the two symptomatic jasmine tissues did not correlate to our speculation. Therefore, there might be other mechanism of the sequence diversity in JaVT involved to effect the differential symptom expression. Certainly, the present result still could not rule out the possibility of JaVC, another virus existing in severe yellow mosaic symptom, might have synergistic effect with JaVT to promote symptom severity in jasmine.

Topic Category 基礎與應用科學 > 化學
理工學院 > 應用化學系生化科技碩博士班
生物農學 > 生物科學
Reference
  1. 林宜螢,「由茉莉花(Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait) 分離之一種新
    連結:
  2. 林毅忠,「感染茉莉花之一種新Carlavirus之鑑定及其與黃化病徵
    連結:
  3. 陳金枝,「蕪菁嵌紋病毒載體表現外源蛋白之開發及具交互保護能
    連結:
  4. 力輕症病毒株系統之建築」,國立中興大學植物病理學系博士
    連結:
  5. viral suppressor of gene silencing in plant. PNAS 95:
    連結:
  6. helper component-proteinase and coat protein (CP) have
    連結:
  7. variegation of Jasminum sambac. Phytopathol. Medit.
    連結:
  8. Phytopathol, 11: 1-92.
    連結:
  9. potyvirus. Virology 231: 141-147.
    連結:
  10. Boyer, J. C., and Haenni, A. L. 1994. Infectious
    連結:
  11. transcripts and cDNA clones of RNA viruses. Virol.
    連結:
  12. gardening, upon the change of colour in grapes and
    連結:
  13. Jessamine. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 31: 102-104.
    連結:
  14. Carrington, J. C. and Freed, D. D. 1990. Cap-independent
    連結:
  15. Wheat streak mosaic virus revealed by synonymous
    連結:
  16. J. Gen. Virol. 86: 2605-2614.
    連結:
  17. Interact. 10: 472-480.
    連結:
  18. Cooper, J. I.1993. Virus Diseases of Trees and Shrubs.
    連結:
  19. activity of NIa proteinase of tobacco etch potyvirus.
    連結:
  20. Virology 237: 327-336.
    連結:
  21. vein mottling virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 86(10):
    連結:
  22. Dougherty, W. G., and Carrington, J. C. 1988. Expression
    連結:
  23. and function of potyviral gen products. Ann. Rev.
    連結:
  24. Fauque, C. M., Mayo, M. A., Maniloff, J., Desselberger,
    連結:
  25. U., and Ball, L. A. 2005. Virus Taxonomy. Eighth
    連結:
  26. Report of the International Committee on Taxnomy of
    連結:
  27. Felsenstein. J., 1985. Confidence limits on phylognies: an
    連結:
  28. Felsenstein. J., 1993. PHYLP (phylogeny Inference Package)
    連結:
  29. Geneticas, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    連結:
  30. replication. Nucleic Acids Res. 25: 4474-4480.
    連結:
  31. Plant Physiology. 152 (1): 255–266.
    連結:
  32. eIF(iso)4E. Virol. 87 (8): 4302-4312.
    連結:
  33. Hari, V., Siegel, A., Rozek, D., and Timberlake, W. E.
    連結:
  34. 1979. The RNA of tobacco etch virus contains poly(A).
    連結:
  35. variation in vector-borne plant viruses:
    連結:
  36. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant viruses no. 245. Kew,
    連結:
  37. Holy, S., and AbouHaidar, M. G. 1993. Production of
    連結:
  38. infectious in vitro transcripts from a full-length
    連結:
  39. interacts with the viral coat protein and VPg in yeast
    連結:
  40. cells. Virology 214: 159-166.
    連結:
  41. D., Ponz, F., and Walsh, J. A. 2000. The cylindrical
    連結:
  42. TuRB01. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 13: 1102-1108.
    連結:
  43. Kasschau, K. D. and Carrington, J. C. 1988. A
    連結:
  44. counterdefensive strategy of plant viruses:
    連結:
  45. suppression of posttranscriptional gene silencing.
    連結:
  46. Cell 95: 461-470.
    連結:
  47. propagation. Genome Res. 12: 584-594.
    連結:
  48. helicase: A novel activity associated with a protein
    連結:
  49. Res. 18: 7003-7006.
    連結:
  50. shows the presence of tobacco etch virus P3 protein in
    連結:
  51. nuclear inclusions. J. struct. Biol. 118: 243-247.
    連結:
  52. fragrant-flowered plant for landscapes and lei
    連結:
  53. production. Ornamentals and Flowers. 29: 1-4.
    連結:
  54. tobacco etch potyvirus mutants by active RNA
    連結:
  55. C., 1997. Functions of the tobacco etch virus RNA
    連結:
  56. Lustig, A., and Levine, A. J. 1992. One hundred years of
    連結:
  57. Virology. J. Virol. 66: 4269-4361.
    連結:
  58. Mali, V. R. 1979. Tagar (Tabernaemontana coronaria) a new
    連結:
  59. host of jasmine chlorotic ringspot virus. Ind. J.
    連結:
  60. Mycol. Plant Pathol. 9: 242-243.
    連結:
  61. W., and Van-Lent, J. W. M. 1992. Intracellular
    連結:
  62. protein and five non-structural proteins of potato A
    連結:
  63. Gen. Virol. 79: 3123-3127.
    連結:
  64. 1990. The VPg of tobacco etch virus RNA is the 49-kDa
    連結:
  65. proteinase. Virology 178: 285-288.
    連結:
  66. chlorosis. Phytopathology 14: 198-199.
    連結:
  67. multifunctional protein. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 23753-
    連結:
  68. serological, and molecular differences among isolates
    連結:
  69. of systemic infection in Nicandra physaloides. Mol.
    連結:
  70. Plant-Microbe Interact. 12: 1074-1081.
    連結:
  71. 1978. Chemical control of jasmine (Jasminum sambac,
    連結:
  72. Restrepo-Hartwig, M. A., and Carrington, J. C. 1992.
    連結:
  73. Gen. Virol. 76: 951-956.
    連結:
  74. Article: Highlights and prospects of potyvirus
    連結:
  75. molecular biology. J. Gen. Virol. 73: 1-16.
    連結:
  76. Nucleotide sequence of potato virus Y (N Strain)
    連結:
  77. genomic RNA. J. Gen. Virol. 70: 935-947.
    連結:
  78. Lomonossoff, G. P., Qiu, S. G., Linstead, P., Shanks,
    連結:
  79. plant virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 88: 9863-
    連結:
  80. helper component-proteinase functions as potyvirus
    連結:
  81. translation initiation factor eIF4E and the viral
    連結:
  82. protein HcPro. J Gen Virol. 88: 1029-1033.
    連結:
  83. Riechmann, J. L., and Garcia, J. A. 2000.
    連結:
  84. Identification of a pathogenicity determinant of Plum
    連結:
  85. Formation of plant RNA virus replication complexes on
    連結:
  86. potyvirus coat proteins and its application in the
    連結:
  87. CAB International, Cambridge, pp. 74-112.
    連結:
  88. and Rhoads, R. E. 1985. Identification of a protein
    連結:
  89. polymerase proteins. J. Gen. Virol. 74: 1133-1140.
    連結:
  90. Interact. 17: 502-510.
    連結:
  91. Stephen J. Wylie and Michael G. K. Jones., 2010. The
    連結:
  92. Arch Virol 156 : 479-482.
    連結:
  93. Raphanus sativus is in its P3 protein. J. Gen. Virol.
    連結:
  94. Takahashi, Y., Takahashi, T., and Uyeda, I. 1997. A cDNA
    連結:
  95. Potyvirus proteins: a wealth of functions. Virus Res.
    連結:
  96. Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., Fauguet, C. M., Bishop, D. H.
    連結:
  97. L., Carstens, E. B., Estes, M. K., Lemon, S. M.,
    連結:
  98. plant potyvirus infectivity by P1 proteinase-
    連結:
  99. isolated from a jasmine (Jasminum mesnyi) plant
    連結:
  100. introduction. Phytopatholoy 65: 927-928.
    連結:
  101. of papaya ringspot virus with other potyvirus. Plant
    連結:
  102. Yeh, S. D., Jam, F. J., Chiang, C. H., Doong, T. J., Chen,
    連結:
  103. nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of papaya
    連結:
  104. ringspot virus RNA. J. Gen. Virol. 73: 2531-2541.
    連結:
  105. 呂福原、歐辰雄、劉業經,台灣樹木誌.,國立中央大學農業院叢
  106. 書,第925頁 (1994)。
  107. potyvirus之特性研究」,國立屏東科技大學植物保護系碩士論
  108. 文,第1-86頁 (2003)。
  109. 關係之探討」,朝陽科技大學生化科技研究所碩士論文,第1-
  110. 75頁 (2012)。
  111. 論文,第1-171頁 (2006)。
  112. 梁鶚,香花集,財團法人豐年社,第114-120頁 (1984)。
  113. 蔡雲鵬,台灣植物病害名彙 (修訂3板),中華植物保護學會暨中華
  114. 民國 植物病理學會刊印,第226-227頁 (1991)。
  115. 儲農、劉守明、陳永和,養花治百病,躍昇文化事業有限公司,第
  116. 149-151頁 (1993)。
  117. 應紹舜,香氣濃郁之茉莉花,台灣花卉園藝,第42-47頁 (2011)。
  118. 薛聰賢,台灣花卉實用圖鑑 (第6輯),台灣普綠有限公司出版部,
  119. 第41頁 (1998)。
  120. 謝秀娟,花壇鄉的茉莉花,農藥世界,第145期 (1995)。
  121. 蘇哲男,花壇鄉特產-茉莉花,豐年37 (13),12-13 (1987)。
  122. Anandalakshmi, R., Pruss, G. J., Ge, X., Marathe, R.,
  123. Mallory, A. C., Smith,T.H., and Vance, V. B. 1998. A
  124. 13079-13084.
  125. Andrejeva, J., Puurand, U., Merits, A., Rabenstein, F.,
  126. Järvekülg, L., and Valkonen, J. P. 1999. Potyvirus
  127. coordinated functions in virus-host interactions and
  128. the same CP motif affects virus transmission and
  129. accumulation. J. Virol. 80 ( Pt 5): 1133-1139.
  130. Baron MH., and Baltimore D. 1982. Anti-VPg antibody
  131. inhibition of the poliovirus replicase reaction and
  132. production of covalent complexes of VPg-related
  133. proteins and RNA. Cell 30 (3): 745-752.
  134. Bellardi, M. G., and Bertaccini, A. 1991. Virus diseases
  135. of ornamental shrubs.V1. Chlorotic spots and
  136. 30: 67-71.
  137. Benigno, D. A., Favalihedayat, M. A., and Retuerma, M. L.,
  138. 1975. Sampaguita yellow ringspot mosaic. Philippine
  139. Blanc, S., Lopez-oya, J. J., Wang, R., Garcia-Lampasona,
  140. S., Thornbury, D. W., and Pirone, T. P. 1997. A
  141. specific interaction between coat protein and helper
  142. component correlates with aphid transmission of a
  143. 198: 415-426.
  144. Cane, H. 1720. An account of two observations in
  145. Carrington, J. C. and Dougherty, W. G. 1987. Processing of
  146. the tobacco etchvirus 49 K protease requires
  147. autoproteolysis. Virology 160 (2): 355-362.
  148. enhancement of translation by a plant potyvirus 5’
  149. nontranslated region. J. Virol. 64: 1590-1597.
  150. Chandra, K. J., Sastry, K. S. and Bhupal-Rao, J. V. R.
  151. 1979. Screening of Jasminum species against yellow
  152. ring mosaic virus. Current Science 48: 77-78.
  153. Choi, I. R., Horken, K. M., Stenger, D. C., and French, R.
  154. 2005. An internal RNA element in the P3 cistron of
  155. mutations that affect both movement and replication.
  156. Chu, M., Lopez-Moya, J. J., Llave-Correas, C., and Pirone,
  157. T. P. 1997. Two separate regions in the genome of the
  158. tobacco etch virus contain determinants of the wilting
  159. response of Tabasco pepper. Mol. Plant-Microbe
  160. Chapman and Hall, London. 205 pp.
  161. Daros, J. A., and Carrington, J. C. 1997. RNA binding
  162. Domier, L. L., Franklin, K. M., Hunt, A. G., Rhoads, R.
  163. E., and Shaw, J. G. 1989. Infectious in vitro
  164. transcripts from cloned cDNA of a potyvirus, tobacco
  165. 3509-3513.
  166. Phytopathol. 26: 123-143.
  167. Viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, New York.
  168. approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39 : 783-791.
  169. version 3.6. Distributed by the author. Department of
  170. Fernandez, A., Guo, H. S., Saenz, P., Simon-Buela, L.,
  171. Gomez de Cedron, M., and Garcia, J. A. 1997. The motif
  172. V of plum pox potyvirus CI RNA helicase is involved in
  173. NTP hydrolysis and is essential for virus RNA
  174. Gaberenaite-Verkhovskaya et al. 2008. A Host RNA Helicase-
  175. Like Protein, AtRH8, Interacts with the Potyviral
  176. Genome-Linked Protein, VPg, Associates with the Virus
  177. Accumulation Complex, and Is Essential for Infection.
  178. Hafrén A., Eskelin K., and Mäkinen K. 2013. Ribosomal
  179. protein P0 promotes Potato virus A infection and
  180. functions in viral translation together with VPg and
  181. Virol. 92: 568-571.
  182. Harrison, B. D. and Robinson, D. J., 1988. Molecular
  183. epidemiological significance. Plant Physiology. 321
  184. (1207): 447-462.
  185. Hollings, M., and Brunt, A. A. 1981. Potyvirus group.
  186. Surry.
  187. clover yellow virus cDNA clones. J. Gen. Virol. 74:
  188. 781-784.
  189. Hong, Y., Levay, K., Murphy, J. F., Klein, P. G., Shaw, J.
  190. G., and Hunt, A.G. 1995. A potyvirus polymerase
  191. Jenner, C. E., Sanchez, F., Nettleship, S. B., Foster, G.
  192. inclusion gene of Turnip mosaic virus encodes a
  193. pathogenic determinant to the Brassica resistance gene
  194. Kamer, G., and Argos, P. 1984. Primary structural
  195. comparison of RNA-dependent polymerases from plant,
  196. animal and bacterial viruses. Nucleic Acids Res. 12:
  197. 7269-7282.
  198. Kekarainen, T., Savilahti, H., and Valkonen, J. P. T.
  199. 2002. Functional genomics of Potato virus A: virus
  200. genome-wide map of sites essential for virus
  201. Lain, S., Martin, M. T., Riechmann, J. L., and Garcia, J.
  202. A. 1991. Novel catalytic activity associated with
  203. positive-strand RNA virus infection: nucleic acid-
  204. stimulated ATPase activity of the plum pox potyvirus
  205. helicase-like protein. J. Virol. 65: 1-6.
  206. Lain, S., Riechmann, J. L., and Garcia, J. A. 1990. RNA
  207. encoded by a positive strand RNA virus. Nucleic Acids
  208. Langenberg, W. G., and Zhang, L., 1997. Immunocytology
  209. Leonhardt, K. W., and Teves, G. I. 2002. Pikake, A
  210. Li, X. H., and Carrington, J. C., 1995. Complementation of
  211. polymerase expressed in transgenic cells. Proc Natl
  212. Acad Sci U S A. 92 (2): 457-461.
  213. Li, X. H., Valdez, P., Olvera, R. E., and Carrington, J.
  214. polymerase (NIb): subcellular transport and protein-
  215. protein interaction with VPg/proteinase (NIa). J
  216. Virol. 71(2): 1598-1607.
  217. López-Moya, J. J., and Pirone, T. P. 1998. Charge changes
  218. near the N terminus of the coat protein of two
  219. potyviruses affect virus movement. J. Gen. Virol. 79 (
  220. Pt 1): 161-165.
  221. Martin, M. T., Garcia, J. A., Cervera, M. T., Goldbach, R.
  222. localization of three non-structural plum pox
  223. potyvirus proteins by immunogold labelling. Virus Res.
  224. 25: 201-211.
  225. Merits, A., Guo, D., and Saarma, M. 1988. VPg, coat
  226. potyvirus bind RNA in a sequence-unspecific manner. J.
  227. Murphy, J. F., Rhoads, R. E., Hunt, A. G., and Shaw, J. G.
  228. proteinase or the N-terminal 24-kDa part of the
  229. Orton, W. A. 1924. An early report on infectious
  230. Plisson, C., Drucker, M., Blanc, S., German-Retana, S.,
  231. Gall, O. L., Thomas, D., and Bron, P. 2003. Structural
  232. characterization of HC-Pro, a plant virus
  233. 23761.
  234. Pruss, G., Ge, X., Shi, X. M., Carrington, J. C., and
  235. Vance, V. B. 1997. Plant Viral Synergism: The
  236. potyviral genome encodes a broad-range pathogenicity
  237. enhancer that transactivates replication of
  238. heterologous viruses. Plant Cell 9: 859-868.
  239. Rajamaki, M. L., and Valkonen, J. P. T. 1998. Biological,
  240. of potato a potyvirus. Phytopathology. 88 (4): 311-321.
  241. Rajamaki, M. L., and Valkonen, J. P. T. 1999. The 6K2
  242. protein and the VPg of potato virus A are determinants
  243. Rajamaki, M. L., and Valkonen, J. P. T. 2002. Viral genome-
  244. linked protein (VPg) controls accumulation and phloem-
  245. loading of a potyvirus in inoculated potato leaves.
  246. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 15: 138-149.
  247. Reddy, A. S., Krishamurthy Rao, B. H., and Wilson, Y.
  248. flower crop) pests. South Indian Horticulture 26 (1):
  249. 25-27.
  250. Regulation of nuclear transport of a plant potyvirus
  251. protein by autoproteolysis. J. Virol. 66: 5662-5666.
  252. Riechmann, J. L., Cervera, M. T., and Garcia, J. A. 1995.
  253. Processing of the plum pox virus polyprotein at the P3-
  254. 6K1 junction is not required for virus viability. J.
  255. Riechmann, J. L., Lain, S., and Garcia, J. A. 1992.Review
  256. Robaglia, C., Durand-Tardif, M., Tronchet, M., Boudazine,
  257. G., Astier-Manifacier, S., and Casse-Delbart, F. 1989.
  258. Rodriguez-Cerezo, E., Findlay, K., Shaw, J. G.,
  259. M., and Risco, C. 1997. The coat and cylindrical
  260. inclusion proteins of a potyvirus are associated with
  261. connections between plant cells. Virol. 236: 296-306.
  262. Rodriguez-Cerezo, E., Klein, P. G., and Shaw, J. G. 1991.
  263. A determinant of disease symptom severity is located
  264. in the 3’-terminal noncoding region of the RNA of a
  265. 9867.
  266. Rojas, M. R., Zerbini, F. M., Allison, R. F., Gilbertson,
  267. R. L., and Lucas, W. J. 1997. Capsid protein and
  268. cell-to-cell movement proteins. Virol. 237: 283-295.
  269. Roudet-Tavert G, Michon T, Walter J, Delaunay T, Redondo
  270. E, and Le Gall O. 2007. Central domain of a potyvirus
  271. VPg is involved in the interaction with the host
  272. Saenz, P., Cervera, M. T., Dallot, S., Quiot, J. B.,
  273. pox virus in the sequence encoding the C-terminal
  274. region of protein P3+6K1. J. Gen. Virol. 81: 557-566.
  275. Schaad, M. C., Anderberg, R. J., and Carrington, J. C.
  276. 2000. Strain-specific interaction of the tobacco etch
  277. virs NIa protein with the translation initiation
  278. factor eIF4E in the yeast two-hybrid system. Virol.
  279. 273: 300-306.
  280. Schaad, M. C., Jensen, P. E., and Carrington, J. C. 1997.
  281. membranes: role of an endoplasmic reticulim-targeted
  282. viral protein. EMBO J. 16: 4049-4059.
  283. Sekiguchi, H., Tacahashi, Y., and Uyeda, I. 2003. The 3’
  284. terminal region is strictly required for clover yellow
  285. vein virus genome replication . Arch. Virol. 148: 759-
  286. 772.
  287. Shukla, D. D., and Ward, C. W. 1989. Structure of
  288. taxonomy of the potyvirus group. Adv. Virus Res. 36:
  289. 273-314.
  290. Shukla, D. D., Ward, C. W., and Brunt, A. A., 1994. Genome
  291. structure, variation and function. In: Shukl, D. D.,
  292. Ward, C. W., and Brunt, A. A. (Eds.), The potyviridae.
  293. Siaw, M. F. E., Shahabuddin, M., Ballard, S., Shaw, J. G.,
  294. covalently linked to the 5’ terminus of tobacco vein
  295. mottling virus RNA. Virology 142: 134-143.
  296. Sit, T. L., and AbouHaidar, M. G. 1993. Infectious RNA
  297. transcripts derived from cloned cDNA of papaya mosaic
  298. virus: effect of mutations to the capsid and
  299. Spetz, S., and Valkonen, J. P. 2004. Potyviral 6K2 protein
  300. long-distance movement and symptom-induction functions
  301. are independent and host-specific. Mol. Plant-Microbe
  302. complete genome sequence of a Passion fruit woodiness
  303. virus isolate from Australia determined using deep
  304. sequencing, and its relationship to other potyviruses.
  305. Suehiro, N., Natsuaki, T., Watanabe, T., and Okuda, S.
  306. 2004. An important determinant of the ability of
  307. Turnip mosaic virus to infect Brassica spp. and/or
  308. 85: 2087-2098.
  309. clone to clover yellow vein potyvirus genome is highly
  310. infectious. Virus Genes 14: 235-243.
  311. Urcuqui-Inchima, S. Hacenni, A. L., and Bernardi, F. 2001.
  312. 74: 157-175.
  313. Maniloff, J., Mayo, M. A., McGeoch, D. J., Pringle, C.
  314. R., and Wickner, R. B. 200. Virus Taxonomy. Academic
  315. Press, New York, 1162 pp.
  316. Verchot, J., and Carrington, J. C. 1995. Debilitation of
  317. inactivating mutations and restoration by second site
  318. modifications. J. Virol. 69: 1582-1590.
  319. Waterworth, H. E. 1971. Physical properties and host
  320. ranges of viruses latnt in and mechanically
  321. transmitted for jasmine. Phytopathology, 61: 228-230.
  322. Waterworth, H. E. 1975. Purifcation of araibs mosaic virus
  323. Wilson, K. I. 1972. Chlorotic ringspot of jasmine.
  324. Ind.Phytopathol. 25: 57-158.
  325. Yeh, S. D, 1994. Comparasion of the genetic organization
  326. Pathol. 3: 54-64.
  327. M. C., Chung, P. H., and Bau, H. J. 1992. Complete
  328. Zhang, L., Hanada, K., and Palukaitis, P. 1994. Mapping
  329. local and systemic symptom determinants of cucumber
  330. mosaic cucumovirus in tobacco. J. Gen. Virol. 75: 3185-
  331. 3191.
Times Cited
  1. 張至超(2017)。馬鈴薯病毒多目標型檢測系統之改良及一種新紀錄之扁蒲種傳病毒之分子特性分析。朝陽科技大學應用化學系生化科技碩博士班學位論文。2017。1-116。