Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「http://dx.doi.org/」 「 http://dx.doi.org/ 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI Registrationdoi.airiti.com ) 。

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  1. 尤之堅,2000,軍工廠國有民營化之研究--以聯勤汽車基地勤務處與工兵裝備基地勤務處為例,元智大學管理研究所碩士論文。
  2. 王克陸、彭雅惠、陳美燁,2007,台灣金控子銀行經營績效之評估—使用DEA方法,科技管理學刊,第12巻第2期,1-28。
  3. 李逸安,2007,國際觀光旅館國際化程度對經營效率之影響,中興大學應用經濟學系所碩士論文。
  4. 李正文、 陳翔修,2008,台灣光電產業之經營效率分析—資料包絡分析法之應用,中原企管評論,第6巻第1期, 1-30。
  5. 周柏昇,2006,學歷與教育訓練對銀行績效影響評估:以台灣地區商業銀行為例國立中央大學產業經濟研究所碩士在職專班碩士論文。
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