Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「http://dx.doi.org/」 「 http://dx.doi.org/ 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI Registrationdoi.airiti.com ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 88 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 徐光國(1996)。《社會心理學》。台北:五南。
  2. 張春興(1992)。《張氏心理學辭典》。台北:東華。
  3. 牟素雯(2002)。《力成本精簡方案和員工個人特質,對工作態度與生涯規劃認知相關研究-以新竹科學園區積體電路產業為例》。中原大學企業管理研究所碩士學位論文,未出版,桃園縣。
  4. 鄭瑞泰(2009)。《我國公務人員退休制度因應高齡化社會之研究》。國立台灣大學政治學系政府與公共政策碩士在職專班碩士學位論文,未出版,台北。
  5. 王曉伯 林宜萱(2005)。《向領導大師學激勵》(約翰.巴多尼原著)。台北:美商麥格羅.希爾國際股份有限公司台北分公司。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 涂淑安(2014)。國民小學教師知覺退休制度與工作士氣之相關研究 —以新北市新店區公立小學為例。國立臺北教育大學教育學系生命教育碩士班學位論文。2014。1-167。 
  2. 何佳倫(2011)。我國公務人員退休制度評估之研究-以傷殘命令退休為例。政治大學公共行政研究所學位論文。2011。1-209。
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