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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 63 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 4. Annegers, J.F., Grabow, J.D., Kurland, L.T., Louis, E.R. The incidence, cause trends of head trauma in Olmstedt County, Minnesota, 1935-1974. Neurology 1980; 30: 912-9.
  2. 5. Teasdale, G., Jennett, B. Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness-a practical scale. Lancet 1974; 11: 81-83.
  3. 6. Jennett, B., Bond, M. Assessment of outcome after severe brain demage-apractical scale. Lancet 1975; 1: 480-484.
  4. 7. Baker SP, O’Neill B, Haddon W et al. The Injury Severity Score:a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evalyating emergency care. J trauma. 1974; 14:187.
  5. 8. Sacks, JJ,Holmgreen P., Smith, SM., Sosin, DM. Bicycle-associated head injuries and deaths in the United States from 1984 through 1988. How many are preventable? JAMA 1991; 266(21): 3016-3018.
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李佳鴻(2010)。國中生騎腳踏車戴安全帽行為與相關因素之研究—以台南縣某國中為例。臺灣師範大學健康促進與衛生教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2010。1-112。
  2. 馮彥平(2011)。高雄市國中學生腳踏自行車騎乘行為表現之研究。臺灣師範大學工業教育學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2011。1-240。
  3. 陳亞緯(2013)。自行車騎士風險認知對自行車保險認知與購買意願之研究。朝陽科技大學保險金融管理系學位論文。2013。1-64。
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