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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「http://dx.doi.org/」 「 http://dx.doi.org/ 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI Registrationdoi.airiti.com ) 。

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Reference ( 34 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳欣玫(2014)。相對所得與主觀幸福感-個人所得欲望之實證研究。國立臺北大學財政學系,新北市。
  2. 吳瓊(2010)。台灣地區退休老人生活滿意度影響因素。亞洲大學健康產業管理學系長期照護組 在職專班,台中市。
  3. 李勉禛(2001)。老人自由需求符合程度、社會支持與幸福感之相關研究。高雄師範大學輔導與諮商研究所,高雄市。
  4. 邱莉婷(2011)。高齡學習者面對問題因應方式、社會支持與主觀幸福感關係之研究。國立臺灣師範大學社會教育學系,台北市。
  5. 邱翔蘭(2004)。高雄市退休老人休閒活動參與與其幸福感之研究。大葉大學休閒事業管理學系碩士班,彰化縣。
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