Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「http://dx.doi.org/」 「 http://dx.doi.org/ 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI Registrationdoi.airiti.com ) 。

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  1. 14. 吳明蒼(民94)大學生休閒滿意量表編製之建構與驗證。臺北市立教育大學學報-人文藝術類、社會科學類、自然科學類,第36卷第二期,頁129-154。 
  2. 16. 吳淑靜(民81),影響組織創造力發展之因素研究─以新竹科學工業園區高科技公司為例,國立台灣師範大學工業教育研究所碩士論文。
  3. 24. 林靈宏、劉水深、洪順慶(民83)。消費品類型、創新類型與新產品行銷策略關係研究,管理評論,第13卷第1期,頁57-77。
  4. 25. 林建維(2002)。國際企業研發人力資源策略、創新管理對組織創新能耐影響之研究-以M企業集團為例。國立中山大學人力資源管理所碩士論文,未出版,高雄。 
  5. 26. 林義屏(民90)。市場導向、組織學習、組織創新與組織績效間關係之研究-以科學園區資訊電子產業為例,國立中山大學企業管理學系博士論文,未出版,高雄市。
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