Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「http://dx.doi.org/」 「 http://dx.doi.org/ 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI Registrationdoi.airiti.com ) 。

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Reference ( 57 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. (4) 林碧珍、蔡文煥,「TIMSS 2003臺灣國小四年級學生的數學素養及其相關因素之探討」,科學教育,第二百八十五期,2~38頁,民國九十四年。
  2. (5) 洪碧霞,台灣PISA 2009 精簡報告,臺北市,國家PISA 國家研究中心,民國九十九年。
  3. (6) 張芳全,「影響開發中國家教育品質因素之模型檢定」,教育與社會研究,第六期,27~67頁,民國九十三年。
  4. (7) 張芳全,「影響數學素養因素探討—以台灣在TIMSS 2003年的樣本為例」,課程與教學,第九卷第三期,151~179頁,民國九十五年。
  5. (10) 張美玉,「TIMSS 2007臺灣四年級學生的科學素養及其相關因素之探討(中)」,科學教育,第三百五十八期,2~19頁,民國一百零二年。
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