Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「http://dx.doi.org/」 「 http://dx.doi.org/ 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI Registrationdoi.airiti.com ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 137 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. (5) 李沛錞, & 蘇信寧. (2009). 以專利引證網絡分析探討技術發展之動態演化. 科技管理學刊, 14(3).
  2. (6) 周麗芳. (2002). 華人組織中的關係與社會網絡. 本土心理學研究, 18, 175-228.
  3. (7) 邱晶晶. (2007). LED 廠商之競爭策略分析-以Cree 公司為例.
  4. (8) 翁順裕, & 賴奎魁. (2009). 從社會網絡分析觀點探討技術的趨同性-以保險商業方法專利為例. 管理學報, 26(5), 485-506.
  5. (9) 許財良. (2003). 廠商創新能力、產業發展與政府科技政策對科學園區廠商競爭優勢及績效影響之研究. 台南.
Altmetrics 〈TOP〉
E-mail :
When an article is available to download, a notice will be sent to your mailbox address.
E-mail :