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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「http://dx.doi.org/」 「 http://dx.doi.org/ 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI Registrationdoi.airiti.com ) 。

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Reference ( 111 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳武典(2010)。中華民國教育年報(99年)(頁333-390)。臺北市:國家教育研究院。取自http://www.naer.edu.tw/ezfiles/0/1000/attach/8/pta_5266_9796604_96046.pdf
  2. 莊妙芬(1997)。智能障礙兒童與自閉症兒童口語表達能力之比較研究。特殊教育與復健學報,5,1~35。
  3. 莊妙芬(2000)。替代性溝通訓練對重度智能障礙兒童溝通能力與異常行為之影響。
  4. 許小莉(2009)。淺談國小資源班之入班宣導。國小特殊教育,48,111-117。
  5. 曾美玲(2008)。運用讀書會方案提升國小學童對身心障礙同儕接納態度之研究(未出版之碩士論文)。國立花蓮教育大學,花蓮縣。
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