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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「http://dx.doi.org/」 「 http://dx.doi.org/ 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI Registrationdoi.airiti.com ) 。

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Reference ( 80 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王文中(2004)。Rasch測量理論與其在教育和心理之應用。教育與心裡研究,27(4),637-694。
  2. 吳坤璋、黃台珠、吳裕益(2005)。影響中小學學生科學學習成就的因素之比較研究。教育心理學報,37(2),147-171。
  3. 吳毓瑩(1996)。量表奇偶點數的效度議題。調查研究,2,5-34。
  4. 林世娟、何小曼(2002)。國小學童「科學態度」及「對科學的態度」之研究-以植物的生長教學活動為例。國立臺北師範學院學報,15,157-196。
  5. 林原宏(2001)。模糊語意變數量表計分之信度模擬分析。測驗統計年刊,9,193-219。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉芳妏(2017)。創客精神融入國小自然與生活科技教學之行動研究。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2017。1-168。
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