Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「http://dx.doi.org/」 「 http://dx.doi.org/ 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI Registrationdoi.airiti.com ) 。

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Reference ( 16 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [1] Kawaji H, Uematsu T, Hoshikawa N, Watanabe H, Takai S. Clinical Results of VerSys Hip System (Zimmer) Uncemented Total Hip Replacement Arthroplasty. J Nippon Med Sch.2016;83(5):184-187.
  2. [2] Röder C, Eggli S, Münger P, Melloh M, Busato A. Patient characteristics differently affect early cup and stem loosening in THA: acase-control study on 7,535 patients. Int Orthop.2008;2(1):33-8.
  3. [3] Al-Azzani WA. Adverse reaction to metal bearing leading to femoral stem fractures: a literaturereview and report of two cases. J Surg Case Rep.2016 1-3;2016(2).
  4. [4] Sasagawa T, Nakamura T. Associated Factors for Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Japanese Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Hip: A Radiographic Study. Asian Spine J.2016;10(5):935-939.
  5. [5] Chammout G, Muren O, Bodén H, Salemyr M, Sköldenberg O. Cemented compared to uncemented femoral stems in total hip replacement for displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly: study protocol for a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial (CHANCE-trial).BMC Musculoskelet Disord.2016 20;17(1):398-402.
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