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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 119 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. 王惠儀,五十二種中藥萃取物抑制酪胺酸酵素與清除自由基能力之研究。亞洲大學生活應用科學系碩士班論文,台中,2007。
  2. 3. 邱輝龍、范明仁,花青素與花色之表現。中國園藝,1998。
  3. 4. 施怡如、鄭統隆、曾東海、王強生,有色水稻中花青素的種類及其功能探討。中華農業研究,2004。55:221~228。
  4. 7. 鄭堯中,水稻T-DNA 插入突變點兩側序列解序方法之比較及插入點之研究。亞洲大學生活應用科學系碩士班論文,台中,2007。
  5. 8. An, G. H., Lee, S. Y., Kim, S. H. and Kim, S. R. (2005) Molecular genetics using T-DNA in rice. Plant Cell Physiol. 46:14–22.
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