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Nature and the Smiths in Hayao Miyazaki's Princess Mononoke

宮崎駿《魔法公主》中的自然、鐵匠與洞孔空間

Abstracts


Hayao Miyazaki is a keen observer of ecological problems. What he bears in mind and tries desperately to deliver, through his animated films, is a simple but critical message: to survive by coexisting with other beings. Following the steps of Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind, an earlier work that depicts a way to survive nuclear bombing, Miyazaki's animated film Princess Mononoke deeply conveys the human aspiration to survive. However, the film ends with a seemingly harmonious but uncanny equilibrium, a kind of a draw between nature and the human. We are in the dark regarding what will happen next. Princess Mononoke leads the audience to ponder the future: when ecological crises have become daily fare and when the uncanny balance between nature and the human has reached a critical turning point, how can humanity survive? This question leads us to Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari's concepts of ecophilosophy and the smiths (metallurgists). The dilemma faced by the smiths in Tatara town epitomizes what human beings encounter in their daily lives. On the one hand, humans subordinate themselves to the state apparatus, whether politically, economically, or culturally, and have a tense relationship with it; on the other hand, they exploit nature regardless of the consequences such as the incessant ecological catastrophes (global warming, depletion of ozone layer, and many others). Princess Mononoke, though criticizing humanity, still portrays a sustainable coexistence of nature and mankind, showing how nature and humans are already entwined and how the smiths, though often forced by the empire to follow its orders, possess the ability to turn their arborescent space into a mediating holey space where real communication and affect can take shape. In a way, this Deleuzian route solves the conundrum of the conflict between nature and the human since the smiths function as the mediators that can unlock the fixed relationship between nature and humans.

Parallel abstracts


宮崎駿導演的動畫常以敏銳的觀察力探討生態問題。他竭力提供一個簡單而重要的信息:要生存、要共存。繼《風之谷》這部描繪核爆炸倖存者的作品之後,《魔法公主》深刻傳達了人類企求生存的渴望。《魔法公主》最終呈現出自然與人類之間一種看似和諧卻詭異的平衡,引領觀眾思考未來:當生態危機常態化,使自然與人類的關係到達關鍵的轉折點時,人類該如何生存下去?這個問題將我們引向了德勒茲和瓜塔里的生態哲學和其中所論述的鐵匠概念。塔塔拉城的鐵匠們所面臨的困境是人類當代情境的縮影。德勒茲和瓜塔里所刻劃的鐵匠職業的特殊情況在我們當代的世界中已經被常態化了,而且與生態災難息息相關。一般評論對《魔法公主》的結局是否走向人類可以與自然共存保留較多的懷疑。本文則提出《魔法公主》雖然批判人性,仍然對人類的未來抱持希望,並描繪了自然與人類間永續共存的可能性。鐵匠雖然常被納入國家體制,遵從其秩序,但他們也可能將從屬於帝國的樹狀空間變成一個中介的洞孔空間,形成真正的溝通與情動力。德勒茲式的路線解決了自然與人類之間矛盾的難題,我們可從動畫中阿希達卡或鐵匠作為中介者看到解決問題的可能性,他們的中間性得以解開自然與人類之間僵化的固定關係。

Parallel keywords

德勒茲 瓜塔里 宮崎駿 《魔法公主》 生態哲學 鐵匠 洞孔空間

References


Adkins, Brent. Deleuze and Guattari’s A Thousand Plateaus: A Critical Introduction and Guide. Edinburgh UP, 2015.
Akimoto, Daisuke. “Learning Peace and Coexistence with Nature Through Animated Films: Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind.” Ritsumeikan Journal of Asia-Pacific Studies, vol. 33, 2014, pp. 54-63.
Bonta, Mark, and John Protevi. Deleuze and Geophilosophy: A Guide and Glossary. Edinburgh UP, 2004.
Chisholm, Dianne. “Rhizome, Ecology, Geophilosophy.” Rhizomes: Cultural Studies in Emerging Knowledge, issue 15, 2007, www.rhizomes.net/issue15/chisholm.html.
Daniels-Lerberg, Tracey, and Matthew Lerberg. “To ‘See with Eyes Unclouded by Hate’: Princess Mononoke and the Quest for Environmental Balance.” Princess Mononoke: Understanding Studio Ghibli’s Monster Princess, edited by Rayna Denison, Bloomsbury, 2018, pp. 57-73.

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