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東晉「沙門袒服」論所反映儒、佛身體觀的順逆之辨及其文化意涵

'Obeying' and 'Opposing' in Confucian and Buddhist Conceptions of the Body as Reflected in the Eastern Jin Debate over Buddhists"Baring the Right Shoulder"

Abstracts


東晉時期的「袒服論爭」,在儒、佛交涉史上有一定的意義,所反映的是僧人服儀殊制於世禮所帶來的衝擊,此緣於袒服之儀形作為一種象徵或符碼,於當時的中土未有一套合宜的定義,故相關論爭可視為二家在立義中游移、反省乃至尋思的解讀過程。本文即以此為研究主體,從身體觀的角度切入觀察二家對袒服理解的歧異。研究過程中發現,二家皆籍由傳統經典舊經驗中的觀念,作為解讀右袒現象的「始源域」(source domain),從而賦予辨位上、形式意義上以吉凶等價值判斷的隱喻,但二家對沙門右手且身體觀的詮解卻有「順/逆」結果之不同:如佛教論者的代表慧遠,將右袒上綱到整個佛法修習的宗致問題,從而以緣「逆」為「順」的立場,賦予袒服以進德體道的內涵,認為右袒乃寓有對存生順化等因緣網絡解構的動機與因素,從而超越世禮之吉凶觀念;名教論者如何無忌則質疑慧遠是以右為凶,以袒為逆,有違傳統禮俗的左、右之辨。本文即在此間差異的對較中,觀察「名教」與「佛教」如何在宗致意識型態的介入與影響下,主導袒服所隱喻之身體觀詮釋的操作,最後再歸結於右袒於中、印文化交涉意蘊的檢討。

Keywords

東晉 沙門袒服 慈遠 何無忌 儒佛交涉 身體觀

Parallel abstracts


During the Eastern Jin, ”the controversy over baring the right shoulder” was a significant debate in the history of interplay between Confucianism and Buddhism, reflecting the challenge to common propriety that the monastic dress code brought with it. This was due to the fact that wearing robes carried certain symbolic meanings that were at that time still to be appropriately defined in China. For this reason, the related controversy can be seen as indecision and introspection on the part of the Iwo schools during what was ultimately an interpretative process. This debate forms the focus of this research, which aims to observe differences between the two schools of thought in their understanding of the significance of the practice of baring the right shoulder from the perspective of conceptualizations of the body.This research find s that both Confucianism and Buddhism drew upon traditional concepts set down in classical literature, each taking these to serve as their source domain for their interpretations of what the act of baring the right shoulder signified. Baring right or left shoulder was each thereby assigned metaphors of value judgment to indicate auspiciousness or inauspiciousness in terms of positional (left/right) distinction and formal significance. When Confucian and Buddhist thinkers Interpreted the terms shun (順obeying) and ni (逆opposing) when applied to the act of baring the right shoulder, they arrived at different conclusions. Huiyuan 慧遠, representing the Buddhist side of the debate, elevated the matter to a religious question, a question of the principles of Dharma practice as a whole; his position was that ni should be interpreted as opposing karma, and was thus in fact shun in respect of obeying Buddhist principles and practice. This interpretation endowed the practice of baring the right shoulder with connotations of improving a monastic's ethical and Dharma practice; in other words, Huiyuan believed that baring the right shoulder implied motivation for deconstructing the web of karma, and as such transcended such concepts of worldly propriety as auspiciousness and inauspiciousness. Confucian critics such as He Wuji 何無忌 challenged Huiyuan's interpretation of the right hand side as inauspicious and the act of baring the right shoulder as oppositional, as being contrary to the distinction between right and left in traditional ritual customs. This paper compares such differences to observe how, under the intervention and influence of religious ideology, traditional Confucian ethics and Buddhism manipulated interpretations of bodily conceptions implied by the act of baring the right shoulder. Finally, this study concludes with an evaluation of the meaning of baring the right shoulder in the interplay of Chinese and Indian culture.

References


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