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從中古佛教徒的「辟穀」受容談《佛三廚經》思維與行法的道、佛交涉意義

The Interaction between Taoism and Buddhism and Its Meanings: Sutra of the Three Kitchens and Its Practice from the Perspective of "Bigu" in Medieval China

Abstracts


本文要在觀察三至八世紀,中古佛教徒的「辟穀」接受史,透由相關文獻記事所呈現當時佛教徒辟穀行法之理由、背景、特徵與思想觀念,作為探究七世紀以降的佛教偽經──《佛三廚經》撰述、結理特色的詮釋基礎。概「過午不食」,自來即是佛教徒傳統齋法的一部分,但進一步發展出輔以「辟穀」,乃至服氣、食餌等,透過身心技術的強化,以追求「天廚」的境界,則不得不是受到道術傳統的影響。僧人為何要辟穀?「天廚」的運作方式、型態、目的、相關概念為何?本文嘗試透過歷史之「外部敘述」導向經典之「內部描述」的探究,從文化結構共享的角度,嘗試比對《三廚經》及其行法源流(如靈寶五牙法)間之異同,並觀察二者近似的敘事、語料、思維與行法特質,以嘗試董理出其間所反映出道、佛交涉的思想史意義。

Keywords

辟穀 三廚經 偽經 氣思維 道佛交涉

Parallel abstracts


This study aims to observe the acceptance of "bigu" 辟穀 (abstinence from eating cereals or breatharianism) of Buddhists in medieval China from the third to eighth century. Moreover, based on the underlying reasons, contexts, characteristics, and thinking of this practice as recorded in related literature of the time, we can better apprehend the interpretations of the Buddhist apocryphal Sutra of the Three Kitchens三廚經from the seventh century onwards. "No food after midday" 過午不食has been a part of the traditional practice of Buddhists. However, "bigu" accompanied with practices such as the imbibing of qi服氣or other treatments which strengthen the body and mind in pursuit of the state of the "Celestial Kitchen" 天廚have undoubtedly been influenced by Taoist tradition. Why did Buddhists practice "bigu"? What were the modes of operation, patterns, purposes, and related concepts of the "Celestial Kitchen"? This research attempts to refer to the "external narration" of history to explore the "internal narration" of the classics; furthermore, from a perspective shared by cultural structures, it aims to compare the Sutra of the Three Kitchens and the origins of its practices as well as observing the similar narratives, language, modes of thinking, and characteristics shared between the two. In this way, this study attempts to understand the historical meanings found within the interactions between Taoism and Buddhism.

References


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