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Comparative dietary effectiveness of a modified government-recommended diet with avoidance of ultra-processed foods on weight and metabolic management in children and adolescents: An open-label, randomized study

Ahead-of-Print version of this article:10.6133/apjcn.202205/PP.0002

Abstracts


Background and Objectives: Childhood obesity is rapidly rising in China and effective diet interventions are needed. Here, we determine whether the Chinese government-recommended diet (GRD) or a modified diet of further restriction of sugar and ultra-processed food but without energy restriction, minimally processed diet (MPD) is effective on weight loss in children and adolescents with obesity/overweight. Methods and Study Design: This open-label, randomized study included 60 children and adolescents between 5-18 years old with overweight/obesity. Participants were randomized 1:1 to the GRD or MPD and self-managed at home for 12 weeks. Both groups received general recommendations in physical activities. The changes were evaluated in body weight, fasting glucose and insulin, lipid metabolism and serum uric acid between baseline and week 12. Results: The results indicated great reductions by time for BMI, BMI z-score, fat mass percentage and fat mass index in both groups. An obvious decrease by time for weight was found in the MPD group (p<0.001) as well as fasting glucose (p=0.005), fasting insulin (p=0.001), total cholesterol (p=0.007) and serum uric acid (p=0.006). As for the amount of visceral fat, greater reduction by time was observed in MPD group compared with GRD group. Conclusions: A 12-week self-intervention combining the Chinese government-recommended diet with physical activities was effective on weight loss in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. The minimally processed diet was more effective on decreasing visceral fat mass and may be beneficial to improving insulin resistance. Further studies are required to assess long-term outcomes of the general public.

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