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“女人的家事”、“男人的家事”:家事分工性別化的持續與解釋

Women's Housework, Men's Housework: Explanations for the Continuing Gender Division of Housework

Abstracts


相對於在公領域中政治與經濟地位的改善,女性在私領域內仍需面對相當程度的不平等。雖然性別平權意識已為多數人所接受,但似乎很難落實到日常生活中。已有的研究發現,即使擁有全職的工作,已婚女性仍需承擔大部分的家務勞動。本文從長期性的角度,探討有哪些因素對家務分工的性別化產生持續性的效果。除了教育程度和就業狀態外,本文也納入性別社會化的觀點,分析家庭背景的影響。利用「台灣社會變遷基本調查」1991、1996、及2002年的資料,作者發現,家務分工確實維持著明顯「男人的家事」、「女人的家事」的區隔。洗衣服主要是太太的工作,而先生則負責家中的修繕工作。相對於性別角色態度,資源擁有及時間彈性觀點對於為何洗衣服這項家務持續由女性擔任,有較高的解釋力。受雇於非家庭或非家族事業或具備高教育程度的女性,承擔家中洗衣勞務的機率較低;受訪者的母親有相對較高的教育程度,其本身婚姻家庭中的家務也較不會拘泥於刻板的性別分工。作者最後指出,改變家務分工性別化的關鍵仍在於男性多投入「女人的家事」。

Parallel abstracts


Even though Taiwanese society appears to have become more egalitarian in the public domain, many women still suffer from physical violence and unequal burdens of housework. Studies on the gender division of housework have generally shown that wives take on the majority of household responsibilities regardless of employment status. Using national sampling surveys conducted in 1991, 1996, and 2002, we examine factors that contribute to the continuation of gender division of housework in Taiwan. In addition to education and employment status, we include the family backgrounds of respondents in our analysis. Statistical results indicate that laundry is primarily considered women's work and home repair remains men's work. Wives with higher educational achievement or who are employed are significantly less likely to do the majority of housework. Mother's education also accounts for discontinuity in gender housework division. We conclude that increased male input into women's housework is the key to significantly change the gender pattern of division of housework.

References


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彭雪莉(2008)。越南新移民女性的跨國遷移與勞動參與〔碩士論文,淡江大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6846/TKU.2008.00914
李芳儀(2017)。性別化的家庭勞務分工對臺灣與中國婚姻滿意度的影響〔碩士論文,中原大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6840/cycu201700599
曾珮玲(2014)。失智症家庭照顧者之照顧負荷研究〔碩士論文,中山醫學大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6834/CSMU.2014.00143
陳衍希(2016)。以空間分析探討政治捐獻的性別差異--以臺灣2012年總統選舉為例〔碩士論文,國立臺灣大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU201603780

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