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日治時期臺灣女性婚育生命史序列分析

A Sequence Analysis on Marriage and Birth Trajectories of Taiwanese Female in Hsinchu Area during Japanese Colonial Period

Abstracts


過去百年來臺灣的婚姻生活模式產生重大改變,婚姻型態的變遷不僅重塑夫妻性別角色的關係,伴隨近代教育、職業、家庭與法律等制度的變革,亦改變不同性別尤其是女性的生涯發展。本文嘗試引入生命歷程的觀點,將婚姻視為一種多元且離散的連續過程,透過建構不同女性的生命序列模式,探討女性婚育行為的生命歷程。本文使用生命史序列分析技術,分析日治時期臺灣新竹地區戶籍資料,研究結果顯示,日治時期新竹地區超過85%女性的婚育行為模式大抵符合傳統華人文化的想像與期待,早婚生子,並且可區分為五種類型:第一類「傳統型」占全體分析樣本的71.48%,特徵為早婚多育;第二類「守寡型」占全體分析樣本的14.12%,特徵為晚婚喪偶;第三類「早逝型」占全體分析樣本的4.08%,特徵為早逝少育;第四類「再婚型」占全體分析樣本的5.91%,特徵為再婚多育;第五類「未/晚婚型」占全體分析樣本的4.40%,是特徵為未婚或晚婚少育。

Parallel abstracts


Marriage type in Taiwan has dramatically changed in the past centuries. Along with the reforms of education, employment, family and legislation, the changing marriage type not only remodeled the sex role of spouses but also altered female life planning. This article applies the concept of life course, and regards marriage as a sequence of discrete transitions. We aim to uncover marriage and birth trajectories of Taiwanese females in the Hsinchu area during the Japanese colonial period through constructing the female life history processes. In order to describe the single-to-marriageto- birth transitions, we use optimal matching algorithm and cluster analysis methods to analyze Japanese household registries in the Hsinchu area. The analysis reveals that over eight in ten Taiwanese females aged 15 to 40 in the Hsinchu area got married and started on birth considerably early in their life trajectories; and these could be divided into a five-cluster typology, including the Typical type (71 percent), Widowed type (14 percent), Early death type (4 percent), Remarriage type (6 percent) and Single/Late marriage type (4 percent).

References


吳文星()。
李美玲(1994)。二十世紀以來臺灣人口婚姻狀況的變遷。人口學刊。16,1-15。
卓意雯(1993)。清代臺灣婦女的生活。臺北:自立晚報。
馬慧君、張世雄(2006)。變遷社會中的女性—一個生命歷程的研究觀點。國際文化研究。2(2),59-97。

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