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快樂在年齡上的變化:U型的爭辯與臺灣兩性的差異

Happiness Changes With Age: U-Shape Debate and Gender Differences Among Taiwanese

Abstracts


主觀福祉(subjective well-being)包含快樂與生活滿意,一般文獻又會以生活滿意代表快樂。當代的主觀福祉研究一直在爭論其與年齡間是否具有U型關係,即年輕與年長者主觀福祉高,中年期最低。本文首先回顧20多年來國外文獻對此U型關係的爭論,接著使用臺灣家庭動態資料庫資料分析年齡與主觀福祉間的關係,本文發現年齡與主觀福祉的U型關係在總效果上比直接效果上更明顯,前者是模型中不控制其他變數,後者是控制其他變數,也就是所有因素在年齡上的變化對主觀福祉的影響為總效果,後者是排除可控制變數後,年齡對主觀福祉的影響。本文也發現生活滿意較快樂在年齡上的U型關係更為明顯,這部分與國外研究的發現一致。所得比較會影響生活滿意,比較不影響快樂,而且所得與男性的生活滿意U型形狀有關,而與女性的U型形狀無關,說明男性的主觀福祉比較會受所得影響,這也呼應國外文獻所說,物質條件的變動比較會影響認知上的主觀福祉-生活滿意,比較不影響情緒上的主觀福祉-快樂。

Keywords

快樂 生活滿意 主觀福祉 年齡 U型

Parallel abstracts


Subjective well-being (SWB) can be represented by happiness and life satisfaction. In the literature, happiness often is represented by life satisfaction. Contemporary SWB research has been debating whether there is a U-shaped relationship between age and happiness. That is, the young and the elderly show a high level of SWB, while the middle-aged shows a low level of SWB. This study first reviews the debate over international studies on the U-shaped curve, then uses the Panel Study of Family Dynamics (PSFD) to investigate the relationship between age and SWB, and finds that the U-shaped relationship is more significant for the total effect than for the direct effect. The total effect is the effect of age on happiness derived from a model without control, while the direct effect is the effect of age on happiness derived from a model with control. Life satisfaction shows a more U-shaped pattern than happiness does, in line with the literature. Income is more correlated with life satisfaction than happiness. Men's life satisfaction U-shape is correlated to income, while women's life satisfaction U-shape is unrelated to income. This reflects the fact that one's economic condition has greater influence on cognitive SWB-life satisfaction than on emotional SWB-happiness.

Parallel keywords

happiness life satisfaction subjective well-being age U-shape

References


Cohen, S., M. L. M. Murphy, and A. A. Prather. 2019. “Ten Surprising Facts about Stressful Life Events and Disease Risk.” Annual Review of Psychology 70: 577-597. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-102857
De Ree, J. and R. Alessie. 2011. “Life Satisfaction and Age: Dealing with Underidentification in Age-Period-Cohort Models.” Social Science & Medicine 73(1): 177-182. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.04.008
Deaton, A. 2008. “Income, Health, and Well-Being around the World: Evidence from the Gallup World Poll.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 22(2): 53-72. doi:10.1257/jep.22.2.53
Deaton, A. 2018. “What Do Self-Reports of Wellbeing Say about Life-Cycle Theory and Policy?” Journal of Public Economics 162: 18-25. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2018.02.014
Di Tella, R., R. J. MacCulloch, and A. J. Oswald. 2001. “Preferences over Inflation and Unemployment: Evidence from Surveys of Happiness.”American Economic Review 91(1): 335-341. doi:10.1257/aer.91.1.335

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陳柯玫、龔茱涵(2022)。經濟狀況與社會支持對單親父母主觀幸福感之影響:性別差異之研究高雄師大學報:教育與社會科學類(52),27-50。https://www.airitilibrary.com/Article/Detail?DocID=P20120111002-202206-202207080015-202207080015-27-50

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