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俄羅斯國會之發展剖析

An Analysis of the Development of the Russian Parliament

Abstracts


俄羅斯國會,全名爲聯邦議會,爲聯邦院和國家杜馬所組成。一九九三年十二月通過的俄羅斯憲法引進了三權分立、多黨制等典型西方憲政原則,但其根本精神卻是俄羅斯式,帶有俄羅斯傳統中的個人專權特色。直至二○○八年三月,俄羅斯憲政體制基本上維持了半總統制下的強勢總統格局,超黨派的強勢總統、無執政黨的多黨制、不成熟的政黨及人民不信任國會之心理因素,造就了「強總統-弱國會」框架下的聯邦院和國家杜馬。二○○八年俄羅斯總統普金卸任,旋即轉任總理並擔任國會最大黨-「統一俄羅斯」黨之黨主席,權力重心仍掌握在普金手中,故普金極力推動之俄羅斯國會歷來修正的「政黨法」與「國會杜馬議員選舉法」和普金未來之走向將關係到俄羅斯健全國會與政黨體制的建立。

Parallel abstracts


The Federal Assembly is the legislative institution of the Russian Federation and consists of two chambers - the Council of Federation and the State Duma. Although the Constitution of Russian Federation which was adopted on December 12 1993 holds to a number of western classic constitutional principles (for example the separation of powers, a multiparty system, and so on), its fundamental nature is thoroughly Russian-rooted and it also integrates the characteristics of a conventionally Russian autarchy. Until March 2008, the Russian constitutional regime basically sustained a super-presidential system, with the presidency far more powerful than both the parliament and political parties. However, despite stepping down from the presidency, Vladimir Putin has managed to retain his preeminent position in Russian politics. In particular, the continuously-amended Russian Federation laws ”On Political Parties” and ”On the Election of Deputies to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation”, and Putin's own ambiguous position, may have a dramatic impact upon the integrity of the parliament and the formation of the well-functioning party system.

References


Elgie, Robert(2007).Varieties of semi-presidentialism and their impact on nascent democracies.Taiwan Journal of Democracy.3(2),53-71.
沈有忠(2004)。半總統制下的權力集散和政府穩定—台灣與威瑪共和的比較。台灣民主季刊。1(3),99-129。
趙竹成(2006)。俄羅斯聯邦選舉制度與總統職權。問題與研究。45(1),53-79。
況正吉(1999)。憲政制度與政治文化對俄羅斯民主鞏固的影響。問題與研究。38(11),31-52。
郭武平(1999)。俄羅斯的憲政發展問題探討。問題與研究。38(8),37-59。

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