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周茂蘭血疏貼黃藳題跋的遺民心曲與遞藏流轉

Zhou Maolan's Tiehuang and Its Postscripts: a New and Everlasting Text in Blood

Abstracts


明熹宗天啟六年(1626)二月,周起元、周順昌、高攀龍、繆昌期、李應昇、周宗建、黃尊素等七名「東林黨」官員被魏忠賢宦官集團逮捕,高攀龍自殺,其餘六人慘死詔獄,後世尊稱之為東林「後七君子」,與楊漣、左光斗、袁化中、魏大中、周朝瑞、顧大章等東林「前六君子」相輝映。翌年八月,熹宗崩,思宗即位,魏忠賢集團覆滅。周順昌兒子周茂蘭、黃尊素兒子黃宗羲等分別上訪北京,要求政治平反,得到思宗支持。期間,周茂蘭刺血寫疏上奏思宗,由於個別字句犯忌,遂重新刺血書寫奏疏之貼黃,因此之故,兩份貼黃,一份隨奏疏遞進朝廷,而作為藁本存留周茂蘭手中的一份,三百年間增生出七十多則題跋,成為牛腰大軸,一度出關赴日,又復回歸中土,既見證明遺民「亡國」之痛、清遺民「亡天下」之痛,也展現文物商品的市場邏輯。

Keywords

周茂蘭 貼黃 遺民 文物 文本

Parallel abstracts


Between 1625 and 1626, Zhou Shunchang, a Ming official well known for his outspoken opposition to the tyranny of Wei Zhongxian the infamous palace eunuch, was arrested and tortured to death, together with twelve other officials. Fortunately for their families and descendants, the political rehabilitation of these thirteen loyal officials started in late 1627 when emperor Xizong (reign title Tianqi) died and the new emperor Sizong (reign title Chongzhen) was enthroned. Zhou Maolan, son of Zhou Shunchang, submitted a memorial written in his own blood supplicating for the new emperor's mercy and justice for his father. According to the newly implemented regulations on memorial submission, an official was required to provide a summary of his memorial in a separate sheet, known as tiehuang. Zhou Maolan was told that the phrasing of his tiehuang might embarrass and anger the new emperor. Consequently, Zhou Maolan wrote a new tiehuang again with his own blood and submitted it together with his memorial to the court. The old tiehuang, now remained with Zhou Maolan, became a distinctive text with a sophisticated cultural life. In more than three hundred years, this old tiehuang grew from a small sheet to a huge set of two scrolls of postscripts in prose, poem and seal by Ming and Qing loyalists, famous scholars and renowned connoisseurs. Following the logic of market for antiquity and artifact, the tiehuang, as a text, slipped away from the Zhou family, changed its ownership constantly, crossing over national border and finally settled itself in the Bei Shan Tang Foundation in Hong Kong. During this journey, the tiehuang witnesses historical transformation, registers individual and collective trauma, emotions, memory and yearning, grows in size, and in this sense becomes a new and everlasting text in blood.

Parallel keywords

Zhou Maolan tiehuang political loyalist artifact text

References


莫家良主編,《北山汲古:中國書法》(香港:香港中文大學文物館,2014),下冊,頁320-337
莫家良主編,《北山汲古:中國書法》(香港:香港中文大學文物館,2014),別冊
〔清〕張廷玉等奉敕修,《明史》(北京:中華書局,1974排印),卷22,〈熹宗本紀〉,頁303-304;卷245,〈周順昌傳〉,頁6353-6355。
陳斌編校,《周順昌研究資料彙編》(蘇州:蘇州大學出版社,2013)
〔清〕張廷玉等奉敕修,《明史》(北京:中華書局,1974排印),卷23,〈莊烈帝本紀〉,頁309。

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