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戰國秦漢幾種《老子》注養生思想的遞變-從全身保身、精神境界、技術化導向到宗教教訓的發展

The Changes in the Thinking of Keeping in Good Health from "Laozi's Annotations from QinHan during the War Period

Abstracts


韓非〈解老〉、〈喻老〉,嚴遵《老子指歸》,《老子河上公注》和《老子想爾注》是今存戰國秦漢四本《老子》注。本文分別從道論、身體的定位與養生之道三方面,討論了這四本《老子》注的養生思想。在道論上,韓非以理釋道,亦兼採以氣釋道的傳統。《指歸》、《河上公注》和《想爾注》均大量吸收氣化宇宙論來充實《老子》「道」論的詮釋,其中《想爾注》更把「道」神格化,視老子其人為道成肉身。在身體定位上,韓非把「身」安置在政治社會架構之中,因此,他所說的養生,其實是透過養氣來達到智慧明達,從而遠禍保身。《指歸》、《河上公注》和《想爾注》都把身體放置在自然宇宙的氣化過程之中,因此,這三本《注》所說的養生,都是講究人在自然宇宙中的養生益壽。在養生論上,《指歸》特別重視「神明」的清靜無為,而少講養氣之方。《河上公注》除了強調「神明」的虛靜之外,更講究節滋味、清五臟以及用氣之方。《想爾注》最大的特色是以「道誡」作為道徒的生活規範,認為必須去除心中的惡念,積集善功,節制男女欲望,才能與精氣相通,長生久壽。在討論了戰國秦漢四本《老子》注的養生思想之後,可以發現:愈後期的作品,養生思想愈來愈有從生命境界往神秘化、技術化導向的發展。

Parallel abstracts


Hanfei's ”Explanation of Laozi” and ”Analogy of Laozi” and Yanzun's ”Principles of Laozi,” ”Laozi's Heshanggong Annotation” and ”Annotation of Laozi Xianger” are the present existing ”Laozi” annotations from QinHan during the War Period. This article is aimed to use the three aspects of ”Taoism,” the physical orientation, and keeping in good health to discuss the thoughts of preserving the health from ”Laozi” annotations. In Taoism, Hanfei uses reason to explain Taoism and adopts the tradition of the mental status explaining Taoism. ”Principles of Laozi,” ”Laozi's Heshanggong Annotation” and ”Annotation of Laozi Xianger” greatly absorbs the mental status from cosmology to enrich the annotations in Taoism from ”Laozi.” Among them, ”Annotation of Laozi Xianger” even makes Taoists become deities and views Laozi as God. In the physical orientation, Hanfei arranges the ”body” in the political and social structure. Therefore, keeping in good health, he says, is in fact to achieve the wisdom and further avoid the disaster and protect the body by preserving the mental status. ”Principles of Laozi,” ”Laozi's Heshanggong Annotation” and ”Annotation of Laozi Xianger” all arrange the body in the mental status process of the natural universe. Therefore, keeping in good health from these three annotations emphasizes how people preserve their health and increase their longevity. In the study of keeping in good health, ”Principles of Laozi,” especially emphasizes the quietness and the inaction of the preternatural instead of the method of preserving the mental status. Besides emphasizing the quietness of the deity, ”Laozi's Heshanggong Annotation” even emphasizes the flavor, clearing the internal organs of the body in general, and the method of using the mental status. ”Annotation of Laozi Xianger” chiefly adopts ”Taoism warnings” to regulate Taoists in their lives. That is, the evil thinking in the minds must be rid of. Do more good things and control the gender desires. In this way, people can preserve their mental status and live long. After discussing the thoughts of keeping healthy from ”Laozi” annotations in QinHan during the War Period, we can find that the later works show more mysteries and skill operations in the thinking of preserving good health.

References


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Cited by


謝金汎(2015)。自然義的道家氣化宇宙論:以《老子指歸》為例〔博士論文,國立中央大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://www.airitilibrary.com/Article/Detail?DocID=U0031-0412201512040992

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