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Sexual Difference on Corruption Tolerance




貪腐 性別 工作 職業 成功

Parallel abstracts

Using ISSP 2009, this study finds that, compared to men, women are more intolerant toward corruption. This conclusion holds even after controlling for work status, occupation, and income. Respondents with bad current work status (unemployment), low occupational status, and low income tend to be more tolerant of corruption, particularly for men. Although unemployment makes women more tolerant of corruption, it makes men much more tolerant of corruption. The difference in the degree of tolerance toward corruption between the highest and the lowest occupational statuses is greater for men than for women. Income is irrelevant to how women perceive the relation between success and corruption, but low income leads men to believe that to succeed one must be corrupt. Depression literature shows that the main sources of men's depression are related to achievement and employment, while our study demonstrates that men with low achievement are more likely to perceive success with a sour-grapes view. Enhancing women's working status does not change their degree of tolerance toward corruption. Therefore, no matter whether the tolerance difference between the sexes is from nature or nurture, increasing women's participation in politics and law enforcement is expected to reduce corruption.

Parallel keywords

corruption sex work occupation success


Alatas, Vivi, Lisa Cameron, Ananish Chaudhuri, Nisvan Erkal, and Lata Gangadharan, 2009, “Gender, Culture, and Corruption: Insights from an Experimental Analysis.” Southern Economic Journal 75(3): 663–680.
Alm, James, and Benno Torgler, 2006, “Culture Differences and Tax Morale in the United States and in Europe.” Journal of Economic Psychology 27(2): 224–246.
Angst, Jules, Alex Gamma, Markus Gastpar, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Julien Mendlewicz, and Andre Tylee, 2002, “Gender Differences in Depression.” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 252(5): 201–209.
Armantier, Olivier, and Amadou Boly, 2008, “Can Corruption Be Studied in the Lab? Comparing a Field and a Lab Experiment.” CIRANO—Scientific Publications No. 2008s–26.
Baker Jr., Michael D., and Jon K. Maner, 2008, “Risk-Taking as a Situationally Sensitive Male Mating Strategy.” Evolution and Human Behavior 29(6): 391–395.