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後現代助產師:Rebozo在丹麥的位移與孕產照護實作的混種

Postmodern Midwives: Displacing Rebozo into a Danish Practice through Hybrid Maternity Care

Abstracts


本文探討rebozo在丹麥成為新興助產技藝的位移歷程。Rebozo源自於墨西哥,西班牙文原意為裹巾或者披肩之意,近年傳入北歐丹麥,成為助產師常用的陪產技藝。透過在丹麥的田野調查,訪談助產師、產科醫師和懷孕夫妻,本文分析rebozo如何吸引相關行動者的興趣、在丹麥的轉變內涵、以及其如何融入本地的孕產照護並影響了丹麥既有的助產照護。本文發現當rebozo在融入與影響本地原有的照護時,也進行了知識重組。這個重組的過程也是行動者建立與生物醫學和在地的助產實作關聯性過程。這些細微的轉變和影響並非單向的,而是分散、不連續地發生,在不同的行動者的促成下,發展出rebozo在丹麥的特殊轉譯模式。這也是丹麥後現代助產師在實作上跨越生物醫學vs.助產、北方vs.南方、現代vs.傳統,並能夠在彼此間移動的影響結果。本文透過檢視丹麥rebozo的位移歷程,延伸了當代助產師專業認同與傳統助產技藝關係的討論,並分析rebozo的實作如何維繫助產照護所關注的自然產與減少醫療介入的核心價值;也透過分析丹麥助產師如何在傳統技藝與生物醫學間建立關聯性歷程,擴展當代STS研究近年關注的傳統技藝與創新相關議題。

Keywords

Rebozo 後現代助產師 轉譯 位移 混種

Parallel abstracts


This paper discusses the "displacement" of the rebozo midwifery technology from Mexico to Denmark. Rebozo, which means wrapper or scarf, has traditionally provided pain relief to Mexican women during labour, and it has recently become a common tool for Danish midwives during childbirth. This paper examines the attraction of rebozo for various actors along with its integration into and influence on Danish maternity care. Fieldwork revealed that through its integration into Danish maternity care, rebozo has been translated into a Danish practice. The successful displacement of rebozo from Mexico to Denmark has enabled its integration with other practices and alignment with national clinical guidelines. Notably, this displacement was caused by the decentralised and discontinuous actions of various actors. Based on rebozo, this paper explores identity among modern midwives and their relation to traditional midwifery; modern midwives can promote natural birth and reduce medical intervention by using traditional crafts. By adopting traditional alternative crafts along with modern midwifery and western medicine, Danish midwives are transcending the dichotomies of biomedicine vs. midwifery, North vs. South, and modernity vs. tradition. The paper contributes to discussions of the fluidity and translation of technology and discussions of tradition vs. invention in science, technology, and society.

Parallel keywords

rebozo postmodern midwives translation displacement hybridity

References


Smith, Caroline A., Kate M. Levett, Carmel T. Collins, Hannah G. Dahlen, Carolyn C. Ee, and Machiko Suganuma (2018). Massage, Reflexology and Other Manual Methods for Pain Management in Labour. https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD009290.pub3/full (Retrieved: March 21, 2021).
Davis-Floyd, Robbie and Christine Barbara Johnson, eds. (2006). Mainstreaming Midwives: The Politics of Change. London: Routledge.
de Laet, Marianne and Annemarie Mol (2000). The Zimbabwe Bush Pump: Mechanics of a Fluid Technology. Social Studies of Science 30(2): 225-263.
De Vries, Raymond and Rebeca Barroso (1997). Midwives Among the Machines: Re-creating Midwifery in the Late Twentieth Century. In Midwives, Society and Childbirth: Debates and Controversies in The Modern Period, edited by Hilary Marland and Anne Marie Rafferty. London: Routledge, pp. 248-272
Dixon, Lydia Zacher, Mounia El Kotni, and Veronica Miranda (2019). A Tale of Three Midwives: Inconsistent Policies and the Marginalization of Midwifery in Mexico. The Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology 24(2): 351-369.

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