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高引用論文作為科學社群在自我組織過程中的動力學因素:以諾貝爾獎研究議題的發展為例

Highly Cited Research Papers as a Dynamic Factor in the Self-organization Process of Scientific Communities: Case Study of the Development of Nobel Prize Laureates' Research as an Example

Abstracts


本文以8篇諾貝爾生理或醫學獎得主的經典論文為案例,分析相關論文的成長率、引用趨勢、引用型式、評價、當下的科技條件等指標來說明論文在科學社群自我組織過程的動力學。首先,依據被引用數的趨勢,論文可區分為慢熟、爆紅與非典型三種類型。在引用文獻時,科學社群明顯偏好主流期刊。而且,疊加排名前200名初級文章的影響曲線所標示的知識擴張點,大致符合社群研究活力的成長趨勢曲線。高引用論文本身具有兩種推動科學的力量:動員研究社群以及凝聚研究方向。論文所報導的新知識會形塑科學社群的認知,而學界當下關注的主題也會左右科學家對於文章的引用頻率。在自我組織的過程中,學界焦點議題的變遷與先備知識是改變研究主軸重要的外部條件。當特定研究整體累積的知名度超過一定的閾值之後,該主題才會成為學界的主流。

Parallel abstracts


This article illustrates the dynamic role that research papers play in the self-organization of scientific communities. Taking 8 classic papers of Nobel Prize laureates in physiology or medicine as cases, I analyzed the publication of related papers, citation trends, citation forms, content evaluation, and the current status of technological development within an area of research. Three citation trends-slow-maturing, popular, and atypical-were found, with a preference for citing mainstream journals. Moreover, the knowledge expansion identified by the impact curve of the top 200 articles roughly corresponds to the growth of research activity in the scientific community. The highly cited research papers possess two capacities that drive self-organization: mobilizing research communities and guiding research directions. New discoveries reported in the most notable papers will shape the cognition of the scientific community and vice versa. Preference within a community and prior knowledge are two important external factors for the development of a particular subject. When the cumulative number of citations on a particular research subject exceeds a certain threshold, the topic becomes part of the mainstream of the academic world.

References


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