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Common Views on Ch'an Buddhism Shared by Linji Yixuan and Dongshan Liangjie


臨濟、曹洞二宗風格不同,歷來言之者甚多,而本文並不著意於探討這個問題。相對地,本文援引相關典據,想從釐析臨濟義玄與洞山良价的禪教思想中,尋得他們對於佛法的共同見解,來闡明其禪學通義,而期能有助於初學者掌握中華禪門教學的主要精神。 本文的主要論點是: (1)臨濟義玄與洞山良价兩位禪師所教「禪」,畢竟立根於「空觀一切」的「法空」思想;而他們所謂「無依」、「無位」乃至「無心」等等,也都是為了傳述這一義理見地的相關概念。 (2)透過「空觀一切」,進而強調「心」在實踐佛道上的重要性,於是兩位禪師所做的「不馳求」、「無事」、「心不附物」乃至「無心」等論述,乃表現出其掌握「諸法空性」之事物存在根本,但又在隨緣應眾方面,專重於勸修不妄起念慮、思維造作的方便法門。 (3)對於言教作用與自證境界的區別,以及它們的關係之問題,兩位禪師同有上承中華禪教傳統的一致觀點,並且強調「領宗得意」在於實際事行能否展現其自身的「空性」體會,而不在於是否建立有關「空性」的言說,抑或有無面對「空性」的思維運作。


無心 無依 理體 事用 臨濟義玄 洞山良价

Parallel abstracts

There had been a great number of discussions on the difference between the styles of Linji and Caodong sects. This is not the focus of this essay. On the contrary, by quoting related sutras and lections, this essay aims to analyze the Ch'an Buddhist's thinking of Linji Yixuan and Dongshan Liangjie with the purpose of finding theirshared views on Buddhism. By revealing the two masters'common views on Ch'an Buddhism, this essay may help beginners comprehend the essence of Chinese Ch'an teaching. The main ideas of this essay include the following: (1) The Ch'an theory taught by both of the Ch'an Buddhist masters, Linji Yixuan and Dongshan Liangjie, is based on the theory of ”emptiness”, namely ”seeing everything as emptiness”. The so-called non-dependence, non-position, and mindless are relevant concepts for interpreting the theory. (2) By teaching the theory of ”seeing everything as emptiness” and focusing on the significance of ”mind” in Buddhist practice, the two masters made interpretations on ”non-pursuing”, ”idleness”, ”mind not attached to nonego” and ”mindless” to reveal their perception of the essence of the existing world, namely ”all things are essentially empty”. To carry on the mission of enlightening sentient beings, they also made efforts to advise the followers to focus on the dharma practice of the expedients for eliminating delusory thought and Samskara. (3) Inheriting the legacy of Chinese Ch'an Buddhism, the two Ch'an masters shared the same understanding on the difference between vocal teaching and self-searching, and the the co-relation between them. They argued that the apperception of the essence of the Ch'an Buddhism depended on not saying or thinking the ”emptiness” but practicing and experiencing the ”emptiness”.

Parallel keywords

Ch'an the Way Mindless non-dependent essence function Linji Yixuan Dongshan Liangji