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Explaining Chronological Changes in Food Preferences in Southeast Asia

解釋東南亞食物偏好的時間變化

Abstracts


Food preferences in Southeast Asia were not scientifically and systematically researched except in author's previous article in 2009, which utilized quantitative data of AsiaBarometer 2006 and 2007 to check the validity of three competing perspectives (globalist, traditionalist, and transformationalist) to understand food preferences in East Asia in general. The biggest limitation in the previous article was its use of just single-time data. This paper uses the Asian Student Survey first wave (2008) data and third wave (2018) data, which have used the same question about food preferences as the AsiaBarometer 2006 and 2007 surveys, to see whether and how university students in Southeast Asian countries (namely Vietnam, Philippines, Thailand, and Singapore) have experienced changes in food preferences over the decade in question. Chronological analysis seems to support the globalist perspective, which predicts convergence of food preferences, because almost all the foods listed in the questionnaire (Peking duck, kimchi, sushi, hamburger, pizza, curry, tom-yum-goong, dim sum, pho, sandwich, and instant noodle) have come to be eaten more frequently than before in all the four countries surveyed. In order to claim this is so, however, it is crucial to collect and analyze qualitative data, including information on how these foods are modified in terms of their taste, ingredients, and representation in host countries, considering that some local uniqueness were also identified including (1) pho is still more favorably eaten in Vietnam than in any other countries, (2) Chinese food (Peking duck and dim sum) are most frequently consumed in Singapore where a lot of overseas Chinese are living, and (3) "Western foods" (hamburger, pizza, and sandwich) are most frequently consumed in the Philippines, which used to be a US colony, and so on.

Parallel abstracts


一直以來,東南亞各國的食物偏好並未得到科學性、系統性的研究。有鑑於此,筆者在2009年發表了一篇文章,利用2006年和2007年AsiaBarometer調查的量化資料,檢驗三種不同分析觀點(全球論、傳統論和轉型論)的有效性,以了解東亞各國的普遍食物偏好。然而,該研究使用的是單一時間點的數據,這在分析上產生了很大的局限性。因此,本文利用亞洲學生調查第一波(2008年)和第三波(2018年)的數據(這兩次調查與2006年和2007年的AsiaBarometer調查,使用了相同問題來了解受訪者的食物偏好),以檢視越南、菲律賓、泰國和新加坡這四個東南亞國家的大學生,他們的食物偏好在十年間是否有所改變,而如果有改變的話,又是發生了什麼樣的變化。時間序列分析的結果,似乎較支持全球論觀點的預測,即各國的食物偏好彼此趨向接近。幾乎所有在問卷中列舉出來的食物(北京烤鴨、泡菜、壽司、漢堡、披薩、咖哩、泰式酸辣湯、港式點心、越南河粉、三明治和泡麵),在所有四個調查國家當中,都比以前更受歡迎。然而,此一宣稱要能夠成立,質性資料的進一步蒐集和分析至關重要,包括人們如何在各自的國家調整這些食物的口味、食材成分、以及其所呈現的形象。原因在於,我們在數據中辨識出某些在地的獨特性,包括:(1)越南仍然比其他任何國家都更喜歡吃越南河粉;(2)最愛吃中式食物(北京烤鴨、港式點心)的國家,是華僑聚居的新加坡;以及(3)「西式食物」(漢堡、披薩、三明治)在曾經是美國殖民地的菲律賓最受歡迎等。

References


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Bunmak, Suttiporn. 2019. “Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Migrant Social Networks of Tom Yam Restaurants in Malaysia,” Asian Political Science Review 3.1: 1-11.
Errington, Frederick, Tatauro Fujitkura, and Deborah Gewertz. 2013. The Noodle Narratives: The Global Rise of an Industrial Food into the Twenty-First Century. Berkeley, CA: The University of California Press.

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