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論「五重玄義」的解經體例-再談中國佛教宗派的成立依據

On the "Five-Sectioned Interpretation" as a Regulation for Buddhist Exegesis in Tiantai Buddhism: Rethinking the Grounds for the Rise of Chinese Buddhist Schools

Abstracts


智顗以「五重玄義」解釋佛經,形成「釋名、辨體、明宗、論用、判教」的解經體例。這套解釋佛經的方法,是南北朝佛門講經的產物。智顗的講經,同時受到儒學和玄學的雙重影響,在形式上與儒家講經相接近,在具體表述上採納玄學的名詞概念和表達方式,一則以辨體明宗為本,二則善於辨名析理。正是這種融合佛教、儒學與玄學的解經體例,促使印度佛教得以進入中國文化的主流。由於判教僅是五重玄義的一章,因此,中國佛教宗派成立的思想依據,並不僅在於教相判釋,而在於解經體例的成熟與否。

Keywords

五重玄義 七番共解 判教 解經

Parallel abstracts


Zhiyi who is the actual founder of Tiantai Buddhism interprets various Buddhist scriptures according to a style which is known as the ”five-sectioned interpretation” or ”five chapters” which has established a set of regulations for Buddhist exegesis: (1) ”differentiating substance”, (2) ”disclosing essence”, (3) ”discussing function,” and (4) ”classifying scriptures.” Such a style of explaining Buddhist scriptures results from the habit of preaching Indian Buddhist scriptures to a Chinese audience in the Northern and Southern Dynasties. Zhiyi's way of preaching has been affected by both Confucianism and the Dark Learning, later also called New Taoism. It is similar to the style of preaching the Confucian canon at that time, and also adopts the terminology from the Dark Learning, which can be easily recognized in expressions such as ”differentiating substance” and ”disclosing essence.” Similarly, his approach of discussing names and its corresponding ideas is rooted in this. Based on this paradigm of Buddhist exegesis, melting with Confucianism and the Dark Learning, Indian Buddhism has been successfully integrated into the mainstream of Chinese culture. Since the Chinese habit of classifying the Buddhist teachings is just a component of the regulation of the ”five-sectioned interpretation,” the reason for the arising of Chinese Buddhist schools does not really lie in those classifications, but rather has to do with the search and exploration of a ”perfect regulation” or ”method” for Buddhist exegesis.

References


龍樹。《大智度論》。《大正藏》冊 25。
智顗。《法華玄義》。《大正藏》冊 33。
智顗。《維摩經玄疏》。《大正藏》冊 38。
湛然。《法華經大意》。《續藏經》冊 27。
志磐。《佛祖統紀》。《大正藏》冊 49。

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