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司公與乩童—日本「皇民化運動」下道士的佛教化

Taoist Priests and Exorcists: Under the Japanese rule with its "Imperial Population Assimilation Campaign," Taoist priests were converted to Buddhism

Abstracts


日本殖民之初,對於臺灣的宗教頗為注意,因為宗教信仰是可以貼近民眾的心靈物,所以總督府甚早就有了「舊慣調查會」,特別是1915年「西來庵事件」爆發後,展開全臺的宗教調查。道教(廣義的民間宗教)是中國的傳統宗教,雜揉了儒、釋二教的教義與儀軌,日本殖民當局的宗教研究者,認為臺灣沒有傳入自力主義的北方全真派,而僅有自力信仰的南方符籙派,即紅頭道士與黑頭道士,專事畫符、消災、驅鬼、降妖。由於紅、黑頭道士與乩童結合,在民間為人治病、消災,因其神明附體時血淋淋的自殘行為,認為其是宗教「迷信」,而時常加以取締。1937年侵華戰爭爆發後,「皇民化運動」如火如荼,日本當局認為宗教的皇民化改造更是確保永久殖民統治的一環,因此,長期在民間與佛教有交涉的道教,最終以同化或改造為「皇國佛教」為目標,本文以總督府機關報《臺灣日日新報》為中心,略述其道教的「皇國佛教化」的歷史過程。

Keywords

道教 司公 乩童 佛教 皇民化運動

Parallel abstracts


During the Japanese colonial rule, the governing authorities set up a ”Traditional Mores Study Committee” in its early years because religion was close to souls of the masses. Especially after outbreak of ”The His Lai Temple Incident,” they started an island-wide campaign to collect information on Taiwan¢s religious movements. Taoism (a popular religion among the masses) is a traditional Chinese religion incorporating the canons and rituals of Confucianism and Buddhism. The Japanese colonial religion researchers found that the self-dependent Northern ”Truth Sect” did not exist in Taiwan. There was only the Southern superstitious ”Taoist Secret Talismanic Sect,” namely red-headed on black-headed Taoist priests specializing in drawing spells, invoking expelling ghosts, and subduing evil spirits. The collaboration of red-and-black-headed Taoist priests and exorcists resulted in ¢medical¢ or physical treatment for the masses. The Japanese colonial authorities often maimed themselves in bleeding bodies to demonstrate they were god-inspired. In 1973, after the outbreak of Japanese invasion of China, the Japanese ”Imperial Population Assimilation Campaign” intensified its momentum because the Japanese authorities considered it vitally important to safeguard their permanent colonial rule by enforcing the religious imperial population reformation policy. Therefore, the long-term connection between Taoism and Buddhism enabled Taoists to set up the goal towards ”Imperial Buddhism” through the process of assimilation and reformation. This paper, based on the reports of the Japanese Taiwan authorities¢ official newspaper Taiwan Daily New Newspaper, traces the historical process of the ”Imperial Buddhism Conversion Movement.”

References


不著撰人,〈本島宗教研究會〉,《臺灣日日新報》(1909 年10 月10 日),7 版。
臺陽,〈綠竹青蕉‧道教的迷信〉,《臺灣日日新報》(1911 年4 月11 日),6版。(原日文,筆者譯,以下同)。
不著撰人,〈蟬琴蛙鼓〉,《臺灣日日新報》(1915 年8 月30 日),4 版。
[日]丸井圭治郎,《臺灣宗教調查報告書第一卷》(臺北:臺灣總督府,1919),頁97。
[日]稻垣其外,〈臺灣館(三)〉,《臺灣日日新報》(1903 年6 月11 日),1 版。

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