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智顗大師晚年止觀修證之研究

A Study on Venerable Zhi-yi's Meditative Practice and Attainment during his Later Age

Abstracts


本文延續拙著〈智顗大師止觀修證歷程之研究─以「賢山潛修」至「天台圓悟」時期為主〉而作進一步之研究,主要探討智顗晚年時期的修證歷程與止觀思想。後陳至德三年(五八五年),智顗於四十八歲時重返金陵,開始其晚年禪講遊化,確立天台思想與圓頓止觀;到隋開皇十七年(五九七)於石城示寂,終年六十歲,此一時期稱為智顗的晚年。本文即研究此期智顗的止觀成就與修行思想,以作為了解天台止觀之特色以及圓教觀行在實修上的應用。此一時期的兩個研究重點是:一、江淮遊徙,即智顗在四十八至五十七歲的十年間,其策杖荊湘,遊化江淮,並完成「天台三大部」之重要思想與止觀著述。實踐了智顗所立天台圓教修行次第「觀行五品」中,「正修六度」的階段。二、以智顗之臨終行誼與遺言為依據,探討圓教止觀之實踐內容。此中,除了分判智顗的往生趣向,並著重於其所證「五品弟子位」的具體內容,以及此品秩與「六根清淨位」的關係,並特別提出其中所蘊涵的出世思想。

Parallel abstracts


This article is a continuation of my previous research on the ”Process and Attainment of Venerable Zhi-yi's Practice of Concentration and Contemplation”. The main focus of this article is to further study Venerable Zhi-yi's journey of practice and attainment, and his ideas about concentration and contemplation in his later age. In the later Chen Dynasty, during the third year of Emperor Zhi-De's reign (585AD), Venerable Zhi-yi returned to Jin-ling. He was 48 years old at that time. He started teaching his meditative practices and established the Tian-tai School theories as well as the Yuan-dun meditative practice (direct contemplation on the truth). He passed away during the 17(superscript th) year of Kai-huang's reign of the Sui Dynasty (585AD) at the age of 60. The years between 585AD and 597AD are considered to be the old-age period of Venerable Zhi-yi. This article concentrates on the study of Venerable Zhi-yi's attainment in meditative practice and his ideas about practice during this period. It is hoped that this article can help bring better understanding on the uniqueness of Tian-tai practice of concentration and contemplation and facilitate further application of the Yuan-dun meditative methods and cultivation. The study focuses on two major areas during this last period of Venerable Zhi-yi's life:1. The Venerable's journey of teaching and practice in Jiang-Huai area: Between the age of 48 and 57, Venerable Zhi-yi traveled and teach around Jiang Huai area. During these ten years, he completed his most important teachings of the Three Major Tian-tai Doctrines as well as writings about the meditative practice of concentration and contemplation. These teachings became the most important theories and meditative practices of Tian-tai. Venerable Zhi-yi also accomplished the 'cultivation of six perfections' in the practice of the 'five levels of practitioners'. These five levels of practice are practices required for the attainment of the 'contemplation and practice stage of realisation'. 2. Research on the practical content of the Yuan-dun meditative method with references to the last sayings and actions of Venerable Zhi-yi. Within this context, besides analyzing Venerable Zhi-yi's theory of destination of rebirth, emphasis is also placed on examining the actual details of his attainment at the ”fifth level of practitioners” and the relationship between this level of practices and ”the level of six sense organs purified.” Basing on previous discussions, this research will especially highlight the implied thoughts of detachment within Venerable Zhi-yi's teachings.

References


釋性廣(2009)。智顗大師止觀修證歷程之研究─以「賢山潛修」至「天台圓悟」時期為主。玄奘佛學研究。12
佛陀耶舍、竺佛念譯,《佛說長阿含經》,《大正藏》冊1。
求那跋陀羅譯,《雜阿含經》,《大正藏》冊2。
鳩摩羅什譯,《妙法蓮華經》,《大正藏》冊9。
畺良耶舍譯,《佛說觀無量壽佛經》,《大正藏》冊12。

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